What happens to the mitochondria during mitosis

sofatutor magazine parents

Middle school biology is genetics about mitosis - a tough subject. Here parents learn how to explain the process and the individual phases of mitosis safely and clearly.

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Mitosis - simply explained:

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Definition: what is mitosis?

The Mitosis is part of cell division in organisms such as B. Humans, animals and plants. Mitosis itself describes the division of the cell nucleus and is divided into different phases based on the condition of the chromosomes (chromosomes contain the genetic information of an organism, the DNA). Strictly speaking, the interphase does not belong to mitosis, but takes place in advance.

The phases of mitosis (cell nucleus division) are called:

  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase

In order to understand the process of cell division, it is important to take a closer look at each phase of mitosis.

Mitosis: the key points in brief

  • The term mitosis describes the division of two cells
  • The process is divided into four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
  • Interphase takes place before mitosis
  • The final division into two cells occurs in cytokinesis
  • The entire process, from the start of one mitosis to the start of the next, is called the cell cycle

The interphase

The period between two cell divisions becomes Interphase called. Here the chromatids of the chromosomes are doubled so that there are chromosomes with two chromatids, the two-chromatid chromosomes. Through the Duplication of chromatids Each chromosome now carries a copy of itself. Then the real one begins Mitosis, the division of the nucleus.

The prophase

In the Prophase the chromosomes contract. This gives them a compact shape and makes them easier to transport. The is formed at the cell poles Spindle apparatus out. The nuclear envelope dissolves at the end of the Prophase on.

The metaphase

The phase two of mitosis is called Metaphase. During this phase, the chromosomes are maximally shortened and have the X-shape that is associated with them.
The chromosomes then move to the center between the two poles of the cell. This area is called Equatorial plane or Equatorial plate designated. The spindle fibers of the Spindle apparatus adhere to that from both sides Centromere, the molecule in the middle of the chromosome. This connects one chromatid with the Spindle apparatus at one pole of the cell and the other chromatid equally connects to the spindle apparatus at the other pole of the cell.

The anaphase

The two sister chromatids, ie the identical copy and the "original", are separated in the Anaphase. The spindle fibers shorten. As a result, they pull the chromosomes with the centromere to the cell poles. Each side of the cell now has a set of single-chromatid chromosomes. The spindle fibers are broken down.

The telophase

The chromatids unscrew in the Telophase again. The spindle fibers dissolve completely. New core shells are created. Both cell nuclei now contain single chromatid chromosomes, but still contain the complete set of chromosomes.

After mitosis, cytokinesis follows

The actual division of the cell into two daughter cells by one Cell membrane takes place only during the Cytokinesis. Meanwhile, the cell organelles, i.e. the components of the cells, e.g. B. mitochondria and chloroplasts, divided among the daughter cells. However, these multiply independently of the division of the nucleus.

Another closes Interphase in which the chromatids are doubled. The period from the beginning of one mitosis to the beginning of the next mitosis is called Cell cycle.

Mitosis Versus Meiosis: What's the Difference

Meiosis is part of cell division in the context of sexual reproduction. So that the number of chromosomes does not double when the paternal and maternal cell nucleus merge, a reduction division takes place first. This is called meiosis I. The subsequent meiosis II corresponds to mitosis. While mitosis creates two identical cell nuclei, the genetic information is rearranged during meiosis and two cell nuclei with different genetic information are created.

The process of mitosis at a glance (infographic)

Use our free infographic as a learning poster. In this way, you always have all the important phases and their properties at hand. Simply enter your email address and the download will start.

Infografik_Mitose.pdf (file size: 1MB)

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Donkey bridges: this is how mitosis stays in the head

So that your child can remember the individual phases of mitosis, including the interphase, they can use donkey bridges. We have put together the best for you.

I (interphase)P (prophase)M (metaphase)A (anaphase)T (telophase)
Lunaticbaboonpainteverythingturquoise
IsawhistlesWithallTones
IcleanmyautomobileEvery day

Cover picture: © sofatutor.com

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