How do you learn from exercise problems

Press snippets - Beekeeping Association Bremen

Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Friday, March 8, 2013 Caffeine in nectar gets bees going Washington (wk). Caffeine not only perks up tired people, but apparently also bees. Biologists have found that the substance changes the insects' brain structure and improves their memory. Even plants benefited from this. As the scientists report in the journal “Science”, bees with the right dose of caffeine can remember the scent of a forage plant for up to three times longer. Caffeine occurs naturally not only in the nectar of the coffea plant, but also in some types of citrus, as Geraldine Wright of Newcastle University explains. With some types of coffee, the concentration in the nectar corresponds to that in a cup of instant coffee. In high concentrations, the substance is bitter and repels insects. In small doses, however, it does not seem to bother the bees, but rather to give them a helping hand, as the researchers have found out. For their study, they trained individual bees. If they recognized a flower scent, they received a sugar solution as a reward. Some of these sugar solutions contained caffeine in low concentrations, such as those found in plants. It was found that all bees learned at about the same speed. In the group that had received caffeine, however, three times as many bees still remembered the learned scent after a day. After three days, it was still twice as many bees remembering it. Caffeine obviously strengthens the long-term memory of insects, concludes Geraldine Wright. The scientists were also able to demonstrate this effect in the animals' brains. There, caffeine changed the membrane properties and thus the excitability of the so-called Kenyon cells. These are nerve cells that are associated with learning to smell. Caffeine is beneficial for both bees and plants, the scientists believe. “This will likely increase the bees' foraging capacities. At the same time, the plant receives a more loyal pollinator, ”explains Geraldine Wright. “The brains of bees and humans are very different,” adds her colleague Julie Mustard from Arizona State University in Tempe (USA). “At the level of cells, proteins and genes, however, they work very similarly. That is why we could use bees to research how caffeine influences our own brain and behavior. ”Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Tuesday, May 24th, 2012 Insects create value Environmental researchers calculate polling results in money around Leipzig (wk). When there are fewer insects, fewer plants are pollinated. If the number of animals falls, the yields fall at the same time - and as a result, prices rise. Scientists from the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research in Leipzig, the Technical University of Dresden and the University of Freiburg warned against this development in the specialist journal "PloS ONE". The economic value of fruits that need to be pollinated by insects or other animals has increased significantly worldwide in recent years, explains the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research. The value of the poll as an "ecological service" has risen from around 200 billion US dollars in 1993 to around 350 billion US dollars in 2009. This is mainly due to the sharp rise in production volumes. The scientists analyzed the relationship using 60 different types of crops - including cocoa, coffee, apples and soybeans - that rely on pollination by animals such as honey bees, wild bees, butterflies and bumblebees. On this basis, they were able to present a global map of the dependence of agricultural yields on the pollination performance. “We can now appreciate with a high spatial resolution how great; this contribution is in many regions “, says the lead author of the study, Sven Lautenbach. In countries like China, India, the USA, Brazil and Japan, the benefits are particularly high. In Europe, this is especially true in Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Greece. In Germany, too, the contribution of polling is by no means insignificant. Since 2001, the prices of persuasive fruits have risen faster than those of other arable crops such as rice, cereals or maize, the researchers write. They see it as an indication "that the intensification of agriculture is reflected in a worldwide price increase of persistence-dependent crops". If more pesticides were sprayed, more fertilizers were used and valuable landscape structure elements such as hedges and rows of trees were converted into arable land, the insects would disappear, according to the scientists. At the same time, the polling rate decreases, which increases prices. This development could intensify in the future. Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Tuesday, May 15, 2012 Bees with jet lag Researchers gain new knowledge about the internal clock of animals Washington (wk). Bees can also have a type of jet lag. As researchers report, general anesthesia upsets your internal clock. After several hours of anesthesia, the insects set out on their exploratory flights too late. In addition, her sense of direction was disturbed. It is also known in humans that anesthesia can lead to sleep disorders and an altered perception of time - similar to jet lag. Honey bees orient themselves in their flights between the beehive and the source of food at the position of the sun. Because of the rotation of the earth, the position of the sun shifts by about 15 degrees per hour. Bees can take this time factor into account thanks to their internal clock. James Cheeseman from the University of Auckland and his colleagues were able to prove that the internal clock of the animals is to a certain extent stopped by anesthesia, so that when they wake up they fly in the wrong direction. In a further experiment, the researchers showed that after several hours of anesthesia, the animals started to feed their food flights too late - this, too, is evidence of a disturbance in the internal clock. The anesthesia influenced the activity of several so-called "clock genes". These genes are related to the production of protein. This takes place in a strict 24-hour rhythm, which is controlled by external stimuli - such as light. Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Friday, March 30, 2012 Pesticides contribute to the death of bees and bumblebees near Boston (wk). According to studies published in the specialist magazine “Science”, pesticides are also one of the causes of the dramatic death of bees and bumblebees. Two research groups had researched the effects of so-called neonicotinoids. This group of insecticides is used in numerous countries. Scientists from France discovered that the poison disturbs the bees' orientation: the animals can no longer find their way to their colony. A team from the UK found that bumblebee colonies were severely eradicated after being treated with the insecticides. “Some species of bumblebee have declined enormously. In North America, for example, some species have more or less completely disappeared, ”writes scientist Dave Goulson from the Scottish University in Stirling. In the UK, three species have already been extinguished. Goulson's team exposed bumblebees to the insecticide imidacloprid. The dose was similar to that which the animals encounter in nature. In an enclosed area, the bumblebees lived under natural conditions for six weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the researchers weighed the nests with all their contents: bumblebees, wax, honey, larvae and pollen. The contaminated colonies were on average eight to twelve percent smaller than the control group. In addition, Goulson and colleagues discovered that the treated bumblebees produced about 85 percent fewer queens. This is an important point: the number of queens influences the number of new nests in the coming winter. Mickael Henry is a researcher at the National Institute for Agricultural Research in Avignon. He and his team stuck tiny microchips to the bodies of the test bees. Some of the small animals came into contact with the insecticide thiamethoxam. These bees died two to three times more often far from their nest than animals that were not exposed to poison. The insecticide disrupted the bees' orientation, emphasize the researchers. They used the data from the microchips to calculate flight routes. Apparently at some point the contaminated bees had moved so far that it was difficult to find their way back. Experts are not only concerned about insecticides. The aggressive Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is considered to be the honeybees' greatest enemy. You stick to the insects. According to experts, due to the mild temperatures last year, the mites were active for a very long time and thus also increased the death of bees. The head of the Institute for Apiculture Oberursel, Bernd Gr & uuml; newald, emphasized earlier this week that the loss of almost 300,000 bee colonies in Germany last winter also had an impact on agriculture. “The bee is our most important bird. If there are fewer colonies, we get pollination problems for rape and many types of fruit. "Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Tuesday, March 27, 2012 Bees have fallen particularly sharply in winter Oberursel (wk) . Apparently far more bees died last winter than usual. For Germany, losses of between 20 and 30 percent of the population can be assumed, says Professor Bernd Gr & uuml; newald, head of the Institute for Apiculture Oberursel. That is almost 300,000 people. The main cause is the varroa mite (Varroa destructor). A loss of between five and ten percent is normal, explains the expert. For about a decade, however, losses between ten and 15 percent have been observed. The fact that it was now significantly more may have to do with the warm temperatures of the previous year. "The mites were active for a very long time, the flying season lasted until November," says Gruenewald. According to him, the situation for beekeeping is "extremely threatening". Bavaria seems to be particularly badly affected. In the long term, consequences for agriculture are also to be feared. “The bee is our most important animal. If there are fewer people, we get pollination problems for rape and many types of fruit. ”According to the scientist, combating the mite is one of the most urgent goals of bee research. There are no preventive measures. In affected hives, formic acid or essential oils evaporate to remove the mites, but that is "difficult, time-consuming and not always successful". The Varroa mite originally comes from Asia and came to Europe in the 1960s. There are many indications of a significant increase in varroa mites, emphasizes Gr & uuml; newald. Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Saturday, April 9, 2011 Bees with a predilection for rapeseed Wild flowers are neglected by insects London (wk). For some bees, rapeseed flowers are more attractive than wild flowers. The huge fields of energy crops could therefore mean that wild plants in the area are not planted and therefore not spread. This is shown by a study by G & ouml; ttingen scientists, the results of which were published in the "Procedings B" of the British Royal Society. The researchers looked at the real key flower (Primula veris) as an example and found that the plant, which is already rare in the region, is even more rare in the vicinity of rapeseed fields. Monocultures, which also include the extensive fields of rapeseed, are considered by many nature conservationists as a symbol of species poverty - after all, these are large, closed areas on which only a single plant is grown. Andrea Holzschuh's team from the University of G & ouml; ttingen found out that the higher the proportion of oilseed rape plants in the area, the fewer seeds they produce. Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Friday, March 25, 2011 Mites add to bees German researchers present results of a long-term study in front of Berlin (wk). A mite is the main reason that bee colonies perish during the winter months. This is the result of the long-term study "German bee monitoring", which was coordinated by the working group of institutes for bee research. There is now statistical evidence that the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in particular affects the bees. The second most important problem during the winter months is infection with certain viruses, they say. The parasite Nosema, pesticide residues and other suspected causes, on the other hand, hardly played a role, said the Association for Sustainable Agriculture. For a number of years - not only in Germany - increased losses of bee colonies have been reported in the winter months. For a long time one could only speculate about the causes. For the new long-term analysis, the period from 2004 to 2009 was taken into account. The study includes around 120 beekeepers with more than 1,200 bee colonies. The animals were examined for diseases and residues of pesticides. In addition, information on the bees, the amount of food they entered (forage) and weather data were recorded. Among other things, it was recorded what percentage of the bees in a colony were infested with Varroa mites in October. The authors of the study write that the higher the infestation rate, the higher the risk of losing the colony in winter. The results showed that the previous treatments - mostly formic acid - carried out on the hive against the mites were not yet sufficiently effective to reduce the infestation. In the winters 2004/05 to 2007/08 the losses would have been between four and 15 percent of the bee colonies, according to the study. In addition to severe mite infestation and virus infections, an old queen is also one of the risk factors. "For the first time it was possible to prove that people with a young queen have significantly higher chances of wintering than people with older queens." The reason for this is still unclear. The authors of the study recommend beekeepers to do something about the mite Varroa destructor. Effective treatment is the best life insurance one can get for a honey colony. Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Wednesday, March 16, 2011 Are bees intelligent? THE QUESTION OF THE DAY Researcher Karl von Frisch already observed in the 1940s that honey bees display a special behavior after their return to the beehive. With their so-called dance, i.e. certain movement patterns, the insects convey information to their conspecifics about the direction and distance in which food sources can be found. Not least because of this, bees are one of the animals in which scientists assume that they are capable of special achievements. Are bees intelligent? Answer: The answer to this question depends mainly on what exactly is meant by intelligence. However, there is no clear definition of the term that would be accepted by all experts. If one sees intelligence as the ability to react in an individual and survival-promoting manner to environmental changes, one would have to attribute these to bacteria, explains the Bremen biology professor Gerhard Roth. Thanks to certain learning and memory skills, they too could change their behavior, at least for a short time. But it is also clear that such abilities are differently pronounced in different living beings. Looking at the bees, one can therefore also ask: What can the animals do? According to Roth, for example, they are able to learn that a sweet liquid is to be expected in connection with a certain fragrance, while this is not the case with another fragrance. You could also assign different objects - such as those with vertical or horizontal stripes - to different categories. They could also recognize connections. In other words, they are able to combine certain stimuli such as flower shapes or colors with certain times of the day or places and therefore fly to one type of flower in the morning and the other in the afternoon. As Roth emphasizes, it is also interesting what bees cannot. A logical conclusion is that if A is greater than B and B is greater than C, then A is also greater than C.According to the Bremen biologist, bees are incapable of making such conclusions. Weser Kurier - Education and Knowledge - Tuesday, July 5, 2010 Bees lived completely isolated for millennia Researchers report a surprising discovery in a remote North African oasis By Anne-Beatrice Clasmann Istanbul. In a remote North African oasis, a Libyan-German research team has discovered a previously unknown species of bee. More than 10,000 years of solitude have not harmed Kufra's honey bees. The bee population of this Libyan oasis is a holdover from the days when the Sahara was still green. In the isolation the animals could evidently thrive splendidly. What is special about this hitherto nameless relative of the Sahara honey bee (Apis mellifera saharienens) is neither its exterior nor the quality of its honey, but its origin. An investigation of its genetic make-up proves that the wild bee originates from more than 10,000 years ago, when the Sahara was not an inhospitable desert, but a green steppe where giraffes and other mammals lived. “None of the large mammals that once lived in the area are left. And what other insects have survived in the oases, that knows. so far nobody has been so specific, ”says Robin Moritz, zoology professor at the Martin Luther University in Halle. He examined the Libyan bees together with the Libyan Taher al Schaibi from Al-Fateh University in Tripoli. The two researchers found that the bees of Kufra, which had retreated to the oasis when the green steppe gradually turned desert, had lived completely isolated for the past millennia. Kufra is located in the southeast of Libya, more than 800 kilometers from the cities in the fertile coastal strip on the Mediterranean. The relentless desert, through which today only the modern caravans of people smugglers pass, forms a natural barrier for insects and other wild animals that rely on plants. “The oasis is just is just great; enough to provide enough habitat for wild bees, ”explains Moritz. If it gets too crowded, bees will inbreed, which only leads to so-called brood failures and in the long term can seal the end of the wild bee populations in a limited area. That is why, for example, only breeding bees can live on the German North Sea islands. The Kufra oasis is 48 kilometers long and 19 kilometers wide, making it apparently large. enough to allow the wild bees to survive. Their isolation also saved the bees from Kufra from a parasite that has infested their conspecifics in large numbers in Europe and North Africa. The mite with the terrifying name Varroa destructor has not yet penetrated Kufra. According to Moritz, the newly discovered bee is the only known subspecies that the mite has not yet encountered. No strange animals This fact can, besides the DNA analysis, serve as a further indication that for several millennia no one had the idea of ​​bringing bees from other regions to this oasis. So far, the beekeepers of Kufra have contented themselves with setting up boxes to collect the honey from the local wild bees. The fact that the interest in the results of their research also arouses great interest outside of the professional world, the scientists say, is due to the fact that bees are popular despite their sting. "My colleague Taher al-Schaibi had originally planned a research on desert louse, because the response would probably have been less," says Moritz, who has been working on Apis mellifera for decades. The expert finds the results of bee research in Kufra also interesting from a species protection point of view. What is the future of bees and other animals in the North African oasis? but no one at the moment. In the 1970s, the Kufra Basin began to tap fossilized groundwater resources that are not renewed. This was done with the aim of increasing agricultural production. As a result, the water table in the oasis sank sharply. WESER KURIER - Knowledge - Wednesday, July 29th, 2009 Ancient wisdom does hornets wrong: Animals are peaceful Bremen (j & uuml; w). Nurse tales still entwine around some animals today. The hornets are also affected, which some people see as a threat - just as an old folk saying goes: According to this, seven hornet stings killed a horse and three killed a person. However, this is sheer nonsense, as the State Association of Bremen of the Federal Environment and Nature Conservation Germany (BUND) explains. Anyone who is not allergic to insect bites has no reason to worry. A fatal dose of poison would require several thousand hornet stings. The poisonous effect of a bee sting is three times as strong. “Hornets are wrongly feared because they are not interested in a colorful coffee table or a large portion of ice cream. Rather, they eat aphids, flies and even smaller wasp species, ”says BUND employee Birgit Olbrich. The adult animals covered almost two thirds of their food requirements with carbohydrate-containing liquids such as tree seed, flower nectar or fruit juice. The brood, on the other hand, is mainly fed with prey such as flies, horseflies and spiders. According to BUND, hornets usually only attack if their honeycomb structure is severely disrupted. Even violent defensive movements by frightened people could occasionally cause the animals to defend themselves. Proper behavior in dealing with hornets but also with wasps, bees and bumblebees can prevent stings. Once a hornet has settled on you, you have to remain calm and wait until the animal has flown away again. The insects can also be removed from the body by a gentle, wiping movement with the help of an object, they say. WESER KURIER - Wissen - January 30th, 2009 Bees differentiate between up to four objects W & uuml; rzburg scientists have investigated how insects deal with quantities W & uuml; rzburg (DPA) Honey bees have mathematical skills - provided they can handle a maximum of four objects do have. The animals can no longer differentiate between them. & quot; The bees are as efficient as a chimpanzee when it comes to differentiating the number of objects, & quot; said Professor Hans J. Gross, biochemist and member of the BEEgroup at the University of W & uuml; rzburg. Scientists from the BEEgroup and their Australian colleagues have published their findings on bee mathematics in the journal & quot; PLoS ONE & quot; published. According to Gross, it was the first time that researchers examined the concept of quantity in an invertebrate animal. It is known that pigeons and chimpanzees can detect a certain number of objects. This was previously not known about bees. In their investigations, the scientists let bees fly through plexiglass tubes. They painted small objects directly on the entrance opening - for example three black dots. At the exit, the bee had to choose between three painted lemons and four green leaves in order to get its food. According to Gross, the bees memorized the number of points observed at the entrance to the tube - i.e. three - and learned that at the exit they had to fly in the direction where three objects were also displayed. According to the biochemist, the object - star, leaf, point or fruit - played no role. It made no difference whether the bees were familiar with them or had to work with objects that had never been shown before. However, if they were presented with quantities of more than four objects, the insects were no longer able to distinguish them. & quot; The bee does not allow itself to be distracted from the object itself; she has learned that it only depends on the number, & quot; explained the W & uuml; rzburg professor. In more than 70 percent of all experiments with four or less objects, the bees would have made the right decision and got their food. & quot; That is an innate ability of humans and animals that cannot be learned, & quot; says Gross. According to him, people can recognize four objects at the same time without counting. With the honey bee there are three. From a quantity of four, the bee takes objects as & quot; a lot & quot; true. But you cannot tell whether there are four, five or more. Book recommendation: Bienenleben Summs and the honey bees is a varied mix of adventure and non-fiction. Written with love and experience. In addition to the entertaining story, the reader also learns a lot of things worth knowing about the complex structure and process in a beehive. Questions, information boxes and macro photos turn the reader into a bee expert. The bilingual nature of the book, German and English, makes him familiar not only with the bees, but also with the English language. It is written for children from six and young at heart adults who have not yet forgotten how to be amazed. Vera Trachmann Summs and the honey bees Buzz and the honeybees 133 pages, 23.90 Euro Schlauberger 2008, ISBN 978-3-9812432-0-8 News from the EU Parliament - January 2009 From pesticides BR & Uuml; SSEL. Dangerous plant toxins may no longer be used in Europe's fields in the future: the EU Parliament yesterday launched a corresponding ban. It is considered the strictest in the world. Industry and farmers lobbies have been fighting the plans for months. They predict falling crop yields and drastically rising food prices. The Greens speak of a "milestone for consumer protection": Almost half of the fruits and vegetables produced in Europe contain a dangerous, poisonous cocktail. The rules come into force in spring. Here are the most important innovations: Ban on highly toxic pesticides: substances that cause cancer, change the genetic makeup or damage reproduction will be taboo in pesticides in the future. Hormonally active substances are also on the black list. So far, around 400 substances are allowed to be used in Europe. 22 are affected by the ban - two of which will have to be withdrawn from circulation this year. Since pesticides are approved for a period of ten years, the last existing approvals will not expire until January 2019. Exceptions to the poison ban are possible. Losses for domestic manufacturers: The manufacturers turn over six billion euros annually in the fight against weeds and weeds in the EU - Bayer and BASF in the lead. They see their profits dwindle. Klaus Welsch, head of BASF's European crop protection division, recently warned: & quot; Agriculture will be ruined under pressure from the green lobby. & Quot; Entry into the pesticide passport: The documentation obligations for producers and farmers are tightened. This ensures better traceability for fruits and vegetables. For the Greens, this is the entry point into an electronic pesticide passport. In the long term, they want to ensure that farmers not only document all the resources used in the fields, but also have to pass this list on to wholesalers and retailers. The Commission should now examine the costs and benefits of such an information system. More pressure on third countries: The strict rules also apply to fruit and vegetable imports from third countries. Bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are no longer allowed to contain pesticides that damage reproduction. Protection for bees: Before insecticides, herbicides and fungicides are approved, their effect on bees must be checked in future. Use is only possible if no unacceptable, acute or chronic effects on the useful testers can be determined. The background to this is the massive bee deaths last spring. In Germany alone, more than 300 million bees died after maize treated with the chemical clothianidin was sown. More information in the hardware store: Even in small shops and garden centers, specially trained staff must inform private buyers of pesticides. Clean playgrounds: The use of pesticides in the vicinity of playgrounds, schoolyards and hospitals must be & quot; minimized or prohibited & quot; become. & quot; Dear country - the best way to live & quot; October 2008: Animal control - bees as air police The air at an airport has to be clean. Guidelines determine the permissible amounts of pollutants. At Hamburg Airport, this is not controlled by ultra-modern high-tech sensors, but by many & quot; Apis mellifera & quot ;, in German: Western honey bees. Up to 150,000 bees hum across the site every day. Even with small amounts of kerosene or other pollutants in the air, the sensitive animals would no longer reach their hive, but would die. Fortunately, the air at Hamburg Airport is so clean that the yellow-black air police even produce good honey: 1,200 glasses a year. The yellow juice is examined twice a year by a laboratory for pollutants, so far without any findings. Meanwhile, the airports of Nuremberg, Cologne-Bonn and Dresden also rely on the animal inspectors. Superorganism Honigbiene J & uuml; rgen Tautz - The bee Modern times for beekeeper friends too - A book to listen to on 2 CDs, attractively designed with a small photo booklet and 143 minutes of concentrated information. ISBN 978-3-932513-80-0, 24.80 euros From tasty honey to & quot; SchwesternmilchDesignfood & quot; Royal jelly, geometrically exact and structurally excellent honeycomb construction, art of orientation through optical odometer and sun compass, thermal technology and isolation of the nests up to social organization with division of labor, reproductive behavior and communication through dancing. Scented and acoustic signals and, of course, irreplaceable pollination performance the bee is one of the most fascinating and at the same time economically most valuable domestic animals, which Aristotle inspired to research and sociological considerations. J & uuml; rgen Tautz, born in 1949, is professor of behavioral physiology and sociobiology at the Biozentrum of the University of W & uuml; rzburg and head of the Beegroup there. Magazine NABU 3-2008 by Werner Girgert The myth of honey A natural product between god's food and genetic engineering Even in the Old Testament, the legend of the land where milk and honey flow fueled the longing for the heavenly promise of eternal abundance and well-being. And even today, honey still has the reputation of liquid gold, which not only tastes delicious, but is also said to be healthy and beneficial to beauty. But what is true about the myth of honey, which was once revered as the food of gods and today should not be missing on any breakfast sandwich? The ancient Egyptians are said to have worshiped honey as a tear from their sun god Ra. And so it is not surprising that amologists discovered the sweet additions for the afterlife in the burial chambers of the pharaohs. Honey was supposed to give the gods of ancient Greece immortality, while the Romans, more inclined to the earthly, relied on the supposedly potency-increasing effect of the divine nectar. Even the most remote testimonies in history are eagerly tried when it comes to marketing honey: be it as a natural spread, for beauty care in cosmetics or, more recently, as a remedy. World champion Germany The Germans have long been considered world champions in honey consumption. On average, they eat just under one and a half kilograms per head per year. Around 700,000 bee colonies, which are managed by the approximately 75,000 hobby and professional beekeepers in Germany, ensure a constant supply. With around 20,000 tonnes per year, however, only around a fifth of the Germans' honey needs are met from domestic production. 85 percent of the honey produced in Germany ends up on the breakfast table, the rest is used by the industry in the production of baked goods and sweets. From a nutritional point of view, the sweet spread, which consists of around 80 percent different types of sugar and around 20 percent water, hardly does better than regular table sugar. The only small amounts of vitamins, minerals and trace elements make a rather insignificant contribution to covering the daily requirement. Gene pollen in honey In the future, the enjoyment of honey should also be diminished by the introduction of genetic engineering into agriculture. German beekeepers fear that once genetically modified crops such as rapeseed and maize are used on a large scale, honey will hardly be able to be produced in the long term without genetic contamination.After all, the busy bee colonies do not distinguish whether they settle on the flowers of genetically modified or traditional plants. It is true that so far only genetically modified maize has been allowed to be used for agriculture in Germany, while rapeseed is only sown on trial fields. The fact that beekeepers' fears for their livelihood are not unfounded was shown by honey from Canada, where 40 percent of the rapeseed comes from genetically modified plants: the pollen of the genetically modified plants can already be detected in Canadian honey. As a result, there is also uncertainty among consumers. Because genetically contaminated honey is not subject to labeling under EU law. Honey instead of wound dressing In contrast, honey is currently experiencing a renaissance in medicine, after having only played a role in the medicine cabinet for coughs and hoarseness for a long time. Whether in the treatment of skin and gastrointestinal diseases, inflammation of the gums or increased blood lipid levels, modern medicine is increasingly thinking about the healing effects of the viscous natural product, already described by Hippocrates and Paracelsus. In more than a dozen clinics in Germany, honey is now used as a wound healing agent. The substances contained in honey have proven to be effective against germs and bacteria. They also work where modern antibiotics fail. "When it comes to wound healing, honey is better than any other wound dressing," emphasizes the Giessen doctor Professor Karsten M & uuml; nstedt. However, it is not the honey from the supermarket that is used, but a special medicinal honey. However, based on experience from clinical practice, M & uuml; nsted warns against considering the sticky substance as an alternative to established therapy concepts. Because with the exception of the use of honey for wound healing disorders and burns, none of the other areas of application have so far been & quot; in front of a critical eye & quot ;. However, the professor has also made further clinical studies on the use of honey for gastric and intestinal diseases and with regard to a possible blood lipid lowering effect. From WESER KURIER - Wissen, September 7, 2007 Early testimony to beekeeping The excavation of Israeli archaeologists puts the Bible text in a new light Jerusalem (DDP). Archaeologists have discovered the remains of beehives in Israel from the ninth and tenth centuries BC. The beekeeping was able to produce several hundred kilograms of honey every year, as the scientists working with Amihai Mazar from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem emphasize. So far, archaeologists have assumed that beekeeping in the Middle East did not develop on a grand scale until much later. The new findings indicate that the “land of milk and honey flowing”, as handed down in the Bible, corresponded more to reality than previously assumed. The site of the excavation in the Beth Shean Valley is the historic town of Tel Rehov, which was once an important and economic center. The researchers found an apiary with more than 30 beehives housed on several floors. The pieces consisted of 80 centimeter long cylinders with a diameter of around 40 centimeters. They were made of unfired clay and straw and had an entrance hole on the front. On the back they had a removable lid to take the honey out. According to Mazar, such beehives made of clay are known from ancient Rome and the Greek cultures. Scientists suspect that beekeeping once consisted of several hundred pieces. The honey was not only used as a delicacy, but also for medicinal and cultic purposes. The researchers also assume that the beeswax was used to grease leather and also played a role as a coating on wooden boards for writing. In the Bible, Israel is referred to 16 times as "the land of milk and honey". Until now, however, Bible Students have assumed that the term used in this context did not refer to honey, but to the pulp of fruits such as dates and figs. Perhaps the term should be taken literally, according to archaeologists. Bee honey is expressly mentioned in connection with wild bees. Weser Courier, EDUCATION & amp; KNOWLEDGE, June 9, 2010-06-09 3,000 year old remains of bees found in evidence of beekeeping in the Jordan Valley, Washington (wk). Already around 3,000 years ago people in the Middle East practiced beekeeping on a grand scale. An international team of foirschers with German participation found remains of bees in dead beehives in Tel Rehove in the north Israeli Jordan Valley. The scientists discovered parts of workers, drones and larvae trapped in honeycombs. The find confirms that bees were already being kept for wax and honey production at that time, the researchers write in the "Proceedings" of the US Academy of Sciences. Although Egyptian wall paintings and ancient texts contain references to wax and honey production, so far there has been no evidence of beekeeping in the biblical land. The term "honey" has long been interpreted as a paraphrase for sweet fruits such as figs and dates, because the keeping of honeybees is not mentioned in the Bible. A few years ago Tel Rehov's clay cylinders were discovered. The discovery of the remains of bees now confirms this interpretation. After the researchers have examined the remains of the bees in detail, it is clear, according to their statements, that the insects were kept in the clay cylinders for honey production. Analyzes of the well-preserved wings and a few dozen beehive legs showed that the bees differ from the local species. It is said that the insects were imported from Turkey by the residents of Tel Rehove because they were less aggressive and produced more honey. DIE WELT - May 12, 2007 - Science by J & uuml; rgen Zittlau Healing Honey The old remedy of natural medicine is experiencing a renaissance. It promotes wound healing and is even effective against tooth decay. However, experts warn of varieties with poor quality Nobody knows exactly how long a person has been collecting honey. It is historically certain that he already operated beekeeping 8,000 years ago and used the yields not only as food, but also as a remedy. The ancient Egyptians used honey to dress wounds, in Buddhism it is considered a meal in combination with rice, which would give "life with beauty, balance and strength" and in the Old Testament it was considered to be "essential." “In everyday life. Today the traditional bee product no longer plays a prominent role as a food or even more so as a remedy. Of the 250,000 tons of sweet spreads that are sold in Germany, less than 20 percent is honey. Regrettable, because honey is not only sweet, but also healthy. A first look at the ingredients, however, makes you skeptical at first. Because honey does not play a particularly important role as a supplier of minerals and vitamins. Important co-formulants such as fiber, fatty acid and vitamin E are practically not found in it, it consists primarily of sugar and water. Its proportion of simple sugars is between 70 and 80 percent, and because of its sticky consistency, it stays in contact with the surface of the tooth for quite a long time, so that many dentists even consider it more ugly than industrial sugar. The fact is, however, that the effect honey has on teeth depends on the amount of honey consumed. In a study by the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, it showed a reducing effect and the growth of caries bacteria in low concentrations. So if you add a hefty tablespoon of honey to your tea, you can count on a certain mouthguard. "Honey does not tolerate bacterial growth for several reasons," explains pathologist Guido Majin of the University of Massachusetts. “On the one hand, it removes the water from the bacterial cells so that they shrink and ultimately die. On the other hand, it contains glucose oxidase, an enzyme that is permanently converted into disinfecting hydrogen peroxide ”. Scientific studies confirm the antibiotic effects of honey on the notorious contributor to gastric ulcer. Compared to conventional antibiotics, as a natural product, it also has the advantage that bacteria cannot develop any resistance to it. Above all, those microorganisms are sensitive to honey that can be found again and again in wound infections. In a study by the Indian Memorial Medical University, it was tested as a remedy for burns in comparison to the established drug silver sulfadiazine. The conclusion of the scientists is unequivocal: “The wounds treated with honey pads showed a faster breakdown of the infection and overall a faster wound closure than the wounds from the comparison group. There are now 32 clinical studies on the wound healing effect of honey with a predominantly positive tenor. The bee product is therefore also characterized by its user-friendliness. "With honey pads, dressing changes are less painful because the wraps can be easily removed without damaging the newly formed skin layers," explains Kai Sofka from the University Children's Clinic in Bonn, where stubborn wounds can be treated with a honey mixture from New Zealand and Australia treated. In Germany, two dozen clinics are now working with this mixture. However, it is a sterile product that has been specially manufactured for medical purposes and not the spread from the supermarket. There is a risk of contamination. Nevertheless, side effects are hardly to be feared with conventional honey consumption. Depending on which “raw material” the bees used for production, allergies have already been observed, but this is extremely rare. The high fructose content can lead to diarrhea, but this laxative effect can even be beneficial. A few tablespoons of honey count in folk medicine as an effective remedy for constipation in children. It is more problematic that honey is offered in very different qualities in this country. In a study by Stiftung Warentest, more than half of 24 honey products received the verdict “unsatisfactory”, and among them there were by no means only cheap offers. Four of them, including two organic varieties, were so contaminated with antibiotics that they should not have been sold. Here the antibiotic effect of the honey gets a bitter aftertaste. DIE WELT - Wissenschaft - Saturday, August 5th, 2006 by Heike Janz Poisonous beasts For allergy sufferers, a bee or wasp sting can be fatal. With targeted therapies, however, doctors can protect almost everyone. When the blanket is finally spread out, the smell of coffee creeps out of the thermos and the plum cake is cut, the picnic is perfect. Nearly. Because it is almost certainly at this very moment that those tormentors appear who so often disturb eating outdoors: wasps. They lean on the sweet pieces of fruit with as much pleasure as humans do. In their presence, every bite must therefore be carefully inspected and every sip of juice checked beforehand. Sometimes bees, bumblebees or even hornets are a nuisance. A bite from these insects doesn't just hurt. For some people it even ends fatally. Around three percent of the population, i.e. around 2.5 million people, are allergic to insecticides. Some so much that the muscles in their bronchi contract, blood pressure drops, and they pass out. In this country ten to 40 people die every year because their body reacts too strongly to the poisonous attack of insects. Across the EU, there are around 180 people each year. "In our clinic, 90 percent of patients with insect venom allergies are hypersensitive to wasps," says Professor Bernhard Przybilla, Head of the Allergy Outpatient Clinic at the Department of Dermatology at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich. “Only one in ten cannot tolerate the venom of bees.” That was different in the past. Because people in the city come into less and less contact with bees, but more often with wasps, immune reactions against bees are decreasing and against wasps. As for all allergies, sensitization is required, in which the immune system gets to know the substance through a first prick. It then forms antibodies, which immediately trigger the reaction with the second bite.