Is that a correct sentence 4

case

As case the 4 cases are designated in German. These are nominative, genitive, dative, accusative. The case shows how the noun relates to the other elements in the sentence. The noun, its companion (Items) as well as deputy (Pronoun) are adapted to the case. This is called a declination. Nouns, articles and pronouns are declined depending on their function.

What do you need the case for?

To understand the meaning and purpose of the cases, it makes sense to take a look at a sentence whose terms are not declined. It is noticeable that the individual cases not only have a function, but are responsible for ensuring that we understand each other. A sentence that does not include it is not understandable.


Not declined:The wife of the brother give the hat to the daughter of the pastor.
Declined:The brother's wife gives the hat to the pastor's daughter.

In the first sentence became the individual parts of the sentencenot declined and consequently not adapted to the respective cases. It is noticeable that the sentence is not understandable and the correct use of the 4 cases is essential to understand German.

The declination thus makes it possible to clarify the relationship between the nouns and the elements of the sentence. Correct declined, however, the whole thing is clear.

Nominative + genitivepredicateDative + genitiveaccusative
The brother's wifegivesthe pastor's daughterthe hat.

The 4 cases in German

There are 4 cases in German. Namely, these are nominative, genitive, dative and accusative. All 4 cases can be asked with W questions. If you rearrange the sentence correctly, you will quickly find out in which case the subject and object are in the sentence. It is the case that the subject of the sentence is always in the nominative, whereas the object is either in the genitive, dative or accusative.

Case question
case
 
Who or what?
Nominative
1st case
Whose?
Genitive
2nd case
Whom?
dative
3. Case
Who or what?
accusative
4th case
masculine
male
the father
A dad
the father's
of a father
the father
a father
the father
a father
feminine
Female
the mother
A mother
mother
a mother
mother
a mother
the mother
A mother
neutral
neutrally
the child
a child
of the child
of a child
the child
a child
the child
a child
Plural
Plural
the parentsThe parentsto the parentsthe parents

1st case: Nominative

The nominative is the basic form of the noun, also the noun, and in relation to the declension of the 1st case in German. In a German sentence, the subject of the sentence is always in the nominative. The nominative is also referred to as who-case or 1st case.

The nominative can be expressed using Who, what? ask. To do this, we pick a noun from any sentence and try to use it after it Who, what to ask. In practice it looks like this:


The father scores a goal!
who or whatmakes a goal? The father!

If a noun is in the nominative, the associated clauses must be declined. The companions of the noun (article) as well as the pronouns adapt to the noun in the nominative as follows:

Articles and adjectives in the nominative

definite articleindefinite article,
Possessive articles (your ...)
no items
masculine
male
dear brothera dear brotherDear brother
feminine
Female
dear sistera dear sisterDear sister
neutral
neutrally
the dear childa dear childdear child
Plural
Plural
dear parentsyour dear parentsdear parents

Pronouns in the nominative

Personal pronounspossessive pronouns
(Companion)
possessive pronouns
(Replacement)
masculine
neutral
feminine
Plural
masculineneutralfeminine
Plural
1st person singularImymymineminemy
2nd person singularyouyouryoursyoursyoursyours
3rd person singular (m)hebehishishishis
3rd person singular (f)youyouyourof theirher (s) syour
3rd person singular (n)itbehishishishis
1st person pluralweourourus (s) reroursour
2nd person pluralyouyouryoureu (e) reryoursyour
3rd person pluralyouyouyourof theirher (s) syour

2nd case: Genitive

The genitive is the 2nd case and is used to indicate affiliations. Furthermore, the genitive comes after some adjectives, prepositions and verbs. The objects of a sentence can be in the genitive (genitive object). In addition, the genitive is referred to as the 2nd case or whose case.

The genitive can be expressed by means of Whose? ask. To do this, we pick a noun from any sentence and try to use it after it Whose? to ask. If that succeeds, the noun is in the 2nd case.


We remember the deceased.
Whosedo we remember? The deceased!

If there is a noun in the genitive, the associated clauses must be declined. The companions of the noun (article) as well as the pronouns adapt to the noun in the genitive as follows:

Articles and adjectives in the genitive

definite articleindefinite article,
Possessive articles (your ...)
no items
masculine
male
of my dear brotherof a dear brotherdear brother
feminine
Female
dear sistera dear sisterdear sister
neutral
neutrally
of the dear childof a dear childdear child
Plural
Plural
of dear parentsyour dear parentsdear parents

Pronouns in the genitive

Personal pronounspossessive pronouns
(Companion, replacement)
masculine
neutral
feminine
Plural
1st person singularmineminemine
2nd person singularyoursyoursyours
3rd person singular (m)hishishis
3rd person singular (f)of theirtheirsof their
3rd person singular (n)hishishis
1st person pluralouroursour
2nd person pluralyouryoursyours
3rd person pluralof theirtheirsof their
Note: Some adjectives, prepositions, and verbs require the genitive. A selection:
  • Adjectives:Knowledgeable of the way, sure of the matter, tired of life
  • Prepositions:for lack, means, thanks, despite, outside, because of, on both sides, this side, beyond, not far, along, left, right, north, south, despite, regardless ...
  • Verbs:accuse, accuse, boast, contain, praise, shame, remember, rejoice

3. Case: dative

The dative is the 3rd case in German grammar. The dative is used after certain prepositions and verbs. The objects of a sentence can be in the dative (dative object). The dative is also referred to as the 3rd case or the Whom case. Partly the dative and accusative are identical.

The dative can be expressed using Whom? ask. To do this, we pick a noun from any sentence and try to ask for it by whom. In practice it looks something like this:


The car belongs to the mother.
Whomdoes the car belong? Mother!

If there is a noun in the dative, the associated clauses must be declined. The companions of the noun (article) as well as the pronouns adapt to the noun in the dative as follows:

Articles and adjectives in the dative

definite articleindefinite article,
Possessive articles (your ...)
no items
masculine
male
dear brothera dear brotherdear brother
feminine
Female
dear sistera dear sisterdear sister
neutral
neutrally
the dear childa dear childdear child
Plural
Plural
dear parentsyour dear parentsdear parents

Pronouns in the dative

Personal pronounspossessive pronouns
(Companion, replacement)
masculine
neutral
femininePlural
1st person singularmemyminemean
2nd person singularto youyouryoursyours
3rd person singular (m)himhishishis
3rd person singular (f)youherof theirtheir
3rd person singular (n)himhishishis
1st person pluralusourourour
2nd person pluralto youyoursyoursyours
3rd person pluralthemherof theirtheir
Note: Some prepositions and verbs require the dative. A selection:
  • Prepositions:from, from ... out, except, at, thanks, opposite, with, after, since, from, from ... from, to, up to, according to ...
  • Verbs:answer, listen, agree, disagree, believe, trust, follow, help, congratulate, thank, obey, forgive, belong, please, feel sorry, hurt, lie (+ preposition + place), sit (+ preposition + place), stand ( + Preposition + place)

  • Some verbs and prepositions can be used in the dative and accusative. The dative is used when a position is asked (Where?)
    • Verbs:hang, stuck
    • Prepositions:on, on, behind, in, next to, over, under, in front of, between

4th case: accusative

The accusative is the 4th case in grammar. The accusative is used after certain prepositions and verbs. The objects of the sentence can be in the accusative (see accusative object). The accusative is also referred to as the 4th case or the Wen case. Partly the dative and accusative are identical.

The accusative can be broken down using Who or what? ask. To do this, we pick a noun from any sentence and try to use Who what to inquire. If that succeeds, the noun is in the 4th case.


The girl is looking for her brother.
Who or whatis the girl looking for? Her brother!

If a noun is in the accusative, the associated clauses must be declined. The companions of the noun (article) as well as the pronouns adapt to the noun in the accusative as follows:

Articles and adjectives in the accusative

definite articleindefinite article,
Possessive articles (your ...)
no items
masculine
male
dear brothera dear brotherdear brother
feminine
Female
dear sistera dear sisterDear sister
neutral
neutrally
the dear childa dear childdear child
Plural
Plural
dear parentsyour dear parentsdear parents

Accusative pronouns

Personal pronounsPossessive pronouns (companion, substitute)
masculineneutralfeminine
Plural
companionreplacement
1st person singularmemeanmyminemy
2nd person singularyouyoursyouryoursyours
3rd person singular (m)himhisbehishis
3rd person singular (f)youtheiryouher (s) syour
3rd person singular (n)ithisbehishis
1st person pluralusourouroursour
2nd person pluralto youyoursyouryoursyour
3rd person pluralyoutheiryouher (s) syour
Note: Some prepositions and verbs require the accusative. A selection:
  • Prepositions:through, ... along, for, against, without, around
  • Verbs:order, visit, pay, book, eat, have, own, carry, buy, sell, meet, know, hear, see, understand, ask, forget, read, write, count, learn, drink, smoke, hide, search, find, place (+ preposition), set (+ preposition), place (+ preposition)

  • Some verbs and prepositions can be used in the dative and accusative. The accusative is used when asking for a direction (where?)
    • Verbs:hang, stuck
    • Prepositions:on, on, behind, in, next to, over, under, in front of, between

Order of the cases in German

The cases in German are not subject to any fixed order. As a rule, the case is given in the order nominative, genitive, dative and accusative. The hierarchy of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th case also results from this ranking. However, there are grammars that follow a different system and order the cases differently.

Basically, the order of the cases is based on the grammar of Latin and is not fixed by any fixed commandment or actually so rigid. This means that the sequence of nominative, genitive, dative and accusative is based solely on a grammar tradition and is not necessarily arranged in this way because it makes sense in German. So there are some grammars that handle it differently.

Alternatively the order nominative, accusative, dative and genitive is usually suggested. Accusative and genitive therefore swap their place of origin. The reason is that nominative and accusative are often formed almost identically or very similarly. In contrast, there is the genitive, which is very different from the nominative. This sequence of cases makes sense from a learning perspective.

Note on the order: On word growth we decided to keep the traditional order. This is not due to the fact that we do not like the other order, but rather has to do with the fact that most schools use the "old" system. Since most of our visitors are high school students, they should be picked up from where they arrived for the German class.
Brief overview: The most important thing about the case at a glance
  • In German there are 4 cases, including cases. These are nominative, genitive, dative and accusative (in other languages, for example, there is also the vocative and the ablative. Both are not used in German, however.).
  • The 4 cases illustrate the relationship between the nouns and the other elements of the sentence. A sentence whose components are not adapted to the case is usually not understandable.
  • Nouns, their companions (articles) and their substitutes (pronouns) are adapted to the respective case. This adjustment is known as declination. The endings of the individual words change, which is made clear by adding them to the stem or plural stem.