How were languages ​​and words created

What is Esperanto?

Esperanto is a language that is particularly suitable for international communication.

"The inner idea of ​​Esperanto is: to remove the walls between peoples on a neutral linguistic basis and to get people used to the fact that each of them sees only one person and brother in his neighbor."

L.L. Zamenhof, 1912

The language was initiated by Ludwig Lazar Zamenhof, who created the grammar on the basis of European languages ​​with a minimum of exceptions. The vocabulary is mainly based on Romance languages, although words from Germanic and other languages ​​also appear. The new language, the first textbook of which appeared in 1887, attracted a community of speakers and began a normal process of language development within a community that used it in many settings and created a language-related culture. Two decades later, the first children were born who spoke Esperanto to their parents, the first native speakers of this language. So it can be said that it is a language that was created for international communication, that was later creolized and is now the language of a diaspora of Esperanto speakers.

Esperanto was created on the basis of the vocabulary of the Indo-European languages, but it should be easy to learn. Because of this, its grammar is agglutinative, a characteristic of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric languages, and the deeper level is isolating, as in Mandarin Chinese and Vietnamese. This means that its morphemes can be used as independent words. It has a completely regular grammar and allows a large amount of words to be formed by combining lexical roots and about forty affixes. (For example, from the root san- (healthy) words like malsana (“sick”), malsanulo (“sick person”), gemalsanuloj (“sick people of both sexes”), malsanulejo (“hospital”), sanigilo ( “Remedy”), saniĝinto (“person who has recovered”), sanigejo (“health resort”), malsaneto (“indisposition”), malsanego (“serious illness”), malsanegulo (“seriously ill person”), sanstato (“ State of health ”), sansento (“ feeling healthy ”), sanlimo (“ limit of health ”), malsankaŭzanto (“ pathogenic ”), kontraŭmalsanterapio (“ healing process ”) ...) Have the main speech components (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) Fixed endings that always indicate the function in the sentence. Its regularity makes it particularly easy to learn, and its ability to form new words in a simple and systematic way makes it one of the most productive languages ​​with a potentially unlimited number of words. It is able to express any new ideas or relationships. For example, it is possible to write a novel about fictional table-shaped Martians and call them tablo (“table”), tablino (“female table”), tablido (“table child”) ... We can imagine a man walking backwards (inversmarŝanto, “going backwards”), a remedy against dogmatism (maldogmigilo, “de-dogmatizer”) etc.

Important characteristics of Esperanto

The basic idea of ​​Esperanto is to support tolerance and respect between people of different races and cultures. Communication is an essential part of understanding. And if the communication takes place with the help of a neutral language, this can help both the awareness that one meets under equal conditions and the respect for one another.

history

  • 1878

    The first primitive version of Esperanto, which Zamenhof calls Lingwe Uniwersala, is completed. However, it differs considerably from modern Esperanto.

  • 1887

    With the help of his wife, Zamenhof publishes the Unua Libro, the book that introduces modern Esperanto.

  • 1889

    The first Esperanto magazine, La Esperantisto, is published in Nuremberg and the first Esperanto club is founded.

  • 1905

    The first Universala Kongreso (Esperanto World Congress) takes place in Boulogne-sur-Mer, with 688 participants.
    The Fundamento de Esperanto is published.

  • 1908

    Universala Esperanto-Asocio (UEA), the World Esperanto Federation, is founded.

  • 1954

    UNESCO establishes advisory relationships with the World Esperanto Federation. First UNESCO resolution.

  • 1985

    Second UNESCO resolution. UNESCO encourages UN member countries to include Esperanto in their curriculum.

  • 1987

    6000 Esperanto speakers take part in the 72nd World Esperanto Congress in Warsaw to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Esperanto.

  • 2002

    lernu! is launched - the largest website for learning Esperanto, free.

  • 2008

    The Esperanto version of Wikipedia - the largest online encyclopedia - reaches 100,000 articles.

  • 2009

    It is possible to take international Esperanto exams at three levels (B1, B2, C1) and to be assessed in the 4 basic skills: reading and listening comprehension, written and oral comprehension, according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages ​​(CEFR or CEFR ).

  • 2012

    Google Translate takes Esperanto as its 64th language.

  • 2015

    Duolingo offers an Esperanto course for English speakers.

  • 2016

    It's a new version of lernu! published.

Esperanto is ...

  • Part 1

    Esperanto is a language that is suitable for everything.

  • Part 2

    Esperanto is a language with many properties.

  • part 3

    Esperanto is a language that is used in many ways.

  • Part 4a

    Esperanto is a language that can be learned and is worth learning.

  • Part 4b

    Esperanto is a language that can be learned and is worth learning.

  • Part 5

    Esperanto is a language with a colorful movement.

  • Part 6

    Esperanto is a language of the future.

grammar

alphabet

Here is the Esperanto alphabet. Each letter has exactly one pronunciation and exactly one spelling, with no exceptions. Click on the examples to hear the pronunciation!

  • Eel loves
  • Bb nice
  • Cc target
  • ĈĉChocolate
  • Ddgive
  • Equal
  • Fsimple
  • Gg large
  • Enjoy
  • Hh hour
  • ĤĥChor
  • IiKind
  • Yyjung
  • ĴĵMagazine, journal
  • Kk coffee
  • Llland
  • MmSea
  • Nnnight
  • OoGold
  • PpPeace
  • Rrfast
  • Jump
  • ŜŝShip
  • Ddday
  • UuCity
  • ŬŭAuto
  • VvLife
  • ZzZebra

Nouns

In Esperanto, every noun ends in -o. (A noun is the name of a thing.)

  • House
  • book

Plural

To make the plural just add -j:

  • Houses
  • Books

Object (sentence completion)

In Esperanto, the accusative object of a sentence is given the ending -n. This allows us to vary the order of the parts of the sentence without changing the meaning. (The accusative object is that which is directly affected by the action, it answers the question: "Whom or what ...?")

  • The dog loves the cat.
  • The cat loves the dog.

Adjectives

Every adjective in Esperanto ends in -a. (Adjectives are used to describe nouns in more detail.)

  • high
  • beautiful

prefixes

Watch out! Adding mal- at the beginning of the word changes the meaning to the opposite.

  • low
  • ugly

mal- is an example of a prefix. Prefixes are placed in front of a word to create new words. There are ten different prefixes in Esperanto.

Suffixes

There are also many ways to form new words with special endings. For example, -et- shrinks something.

  • Little house
  • Booklet

-et- is a suffix. Syllables are placed after a word to form new words. There are 31 different suffixes in Esperanto.

Verbs

Verbs (verbs) are of course very important. But you will see that they are also very simple in Esperanto.

  • play
  • laugh

Verb forms

The ending of the infinitive (the nominal form) is -i. Verbs always end in -as in the present, -is in the past and -os in the future. There are no irregular verbs!

  • I am
  • I was
  • I will be
  • you are
  • you were
  • you will be
  • he is
  • he was
  • he will be
  • she is
  • she was
  • she will be
  • it is
  • it was
  • it will be
  • we are
  • we were
  • we will be
  • you are
  • they were
  • they will be

Adverbs (nouns)

The -e ending is used to form adverbs. (Adverbs are words that describe verbs in more detail.)

  • quiet
  • fast
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