Why is the speed of light not quantized

Spectacular aspects of neutrinos accelerated to the speed of light or above

New York (ots) - In September 2011 a neutrino beam was sent from the CERN laboratory in Switzerland, Switzerland to the INFN Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. It seemed to cover the distance of 730 km through the earth at 0.0025 percent above the speed of light in a vacuum. Some undisputed pillars of classical physics will completely shake if this experiment turns out to be repeatable. Indeed, Einstein's theories allow the existence of undetectable particles that move faster than light. These particles are known as tachyons. However, there is no way to use such theoretical tachyons as a transport medium for information. Einstein's maximum speed of information is clearly limited to the speed of light. The spectacular aspect of such a discoverable neutrino beam would not be the realization that neutrinos are actually tachyons, but rather the discovery of an information speed beyond the speed of light. Since observations of supernova explosions did not register any neutrino rays long before the arrival of the photons released during these cosmic catastrophes, the CERN experiment must be examined very critically. Supernova 1987a neutrinos were detected by the detector of the Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment in Japan. The fact that the neutrinos only reached the earth about three hours before the light of this supernova event is attributed to the fact that the light was briefly trapped in the supernova. From this one could conclude that neutrinos tend to move at the speed of light. If the CERN results are correct, the neutrinos should have arrived years instead of hours before the supernova's light.

There are two fairly simple explanations for this apparent experimental contradiction to Einstein's limitation of the vacuum speed of light and his assumption that baryonic matter cannot reach this barrier because its mass increases relativistically and therefore an infinite amount of energy would be required.

1) If the experiment cannot be repeated, it is a hitherto unknown error in the evaluation method, since neutrinos hardly interact with matter and are therefore extremely difficult to detect.

2) If the experiment is repeatable or neutrinos move exactly at the speed of light, the simplest explanation would be that the four-dimensional space-time continuum is not a pure geometric grid as assumed by Einstein, but a special energetic storage medium, that has so far escaped classical physics. The known fact about a medium is that certain particles can traverse it faster than light, usually creating light phenomena known as Cherenkov radiation. This Cherenkov effect is comparable to the acoustic bang produced by a supersonic airplane. If neutrinos move at exactly the speed of light or even faster, they could get their extremely low mass from a similar effect. This would explain why, in spite of their high relative speed, contrary to Einstein's ideas and the equations for baryonic masses, we do not find a huge relativistic mass increase.

But what could such a strange space-time medium look like? Under no circumstances can it be the type of ether that Lorentz and other scientists assumed when Einstein developed his geometric space-time approach, since the speed of light would not be constant for all observers.

A first viable solution to the riddle appears if Einstein's space-time model is expanded to include quantum mechanical aspects and, at the same time, combined with a rotational element of the well-known relativity of simultaneity. As a result, the vacuum of the room is filled with a kind of quantum mechanical energy foam. In his special and general theory of relativity, Einstein did not consider the quantification of time and length, because such a limitation with infinitesimal values ​​had not yet been discovered and discussed at that time. Neutrinos were also still unknown. Only years later did quantum mechanical aspects find their way into physics in the form of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation and the Planck scale.

We have known since Einstein's era that events along the movement axis of a spaceship, which are simultaneous for an observer on board, are perceived as successive events at high relative speed by an observer who remains behind, because the speed of light is constant for both observers and thus causes the so-called relativity of simultaneity. If, for example, we limit the distance between two simultaneously triggered flashes of light to a vanishingly small minimum value, an observer who remains behind would perceive these simultaneous events as successive events at a certain speed of the spaceship. This certainly has an energetic effect on the observer who remains behind, because Einstein's space-time grid thus has a kind of energy storage effect on his time axis for the second flash of light. This well-known function of Einstein's special theory of relativity can be represented with a two-dimensional graph on which the simultaneous events are represented on an X-axis and successive events on a Y-time axis.

Let us now transform the simultaneous events into successive events in accordance with the proven and undisputed formulas of relativistic mechanics and, taking into account this simple quantization scheme at the lower limits of spatial distance and temporal progress, we introduce quantized rotation elements into the overall picture. This leads to an extended space-time structure with relative storage zones for dark energy and dark matter as well as a viable explanation of the peculiar nature and properties of neutrinos, regardless of whether they move exactly at the speed of light, just below or unexpectedly even slightly above.

Inquiries & contact:

Henryk Frystacki, PhD
Member of the Russian Academy of Technical Sciences, Moscow
External board member of the Institute for Gravitation and Cosmos at Pennstate University, USA Homepage: www.frystacki.de
Phone: +49 08157924137