What does my Allah mean
The animated short film provides information on the development of the conceptual history and the various levels of meaning of the term "jihad".
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[A young woman - Nemi El-Hassan - is standing at a small round table, her left arm propped on it, her hands resting on top of each other. She wears a gray wide sweater and a black scarf as a hijab. The background is simply gray. On the right edge of the picture are books with ornaments on the table. Nemi is in the center of the picture, her hands slightly out of focus in the foreground. She speaks directly, with a calm and serious tone and looks into the camera.]
Nemi El-Hassan: Jihad. A word that leads to collective standing up of the hair on the back of the neck, because in the past many understood well how to stir up fear with it. A word to which they appeal, all the self-proclaimed prophets, to step out their truth into the world.
[Nemi is now closer and on the right in the picture.]
Nemi El-Hassan: You say jihad and mean nothing other than hatred, violence and intolerance. They think they are on God's way and hoist black flags.
[Now Nemi's face fills the picture in a close-up. Her speech and her gaze are even more haunting.]
Nemi El-Hassan: They are people whose ideology is based solely on long beards, severed heads and enslaved women. And it's her hands that have it on, all that blood.
[The image changes back to the first, somewhat more distant take of Nemi at the table.]
Nemi El-Hassan: Jihad, a word degenerates into a symbol of the misinterpretation of all those who consider themselves experts on Islam and yet only manage their own ignorance.
[Again the picture moves closer to Nemi.]
Nemi El-Hassan: A word with which they explain their prejudices against an entire world religion and do nothing other than divide our society.
[Nemi is in the picture further away at the table.]
Nemi El-Hassan: You are warning of attacks in subways and ranting about a holy war and the victory over their civilization that the Muslims are striving for. And are very close to those they warn against.
[Nemi is bigger in the picture again. She now speaks more agitated and underlines her words with her hands.]
Nemi El-Hassan: Jihad is a vision for me. From questioning oneself and carrying ideals from it. The will to get better for yourself, society and God. Jihad means to be and remain human and to drive away your own spirits. Not to be taken in by greed and selfishness. To face this fight instead of just taking it easy and choosing to escape.
[Again the picture moves closer to Nemi and to the right, so that almost the left half of the gray background remains free.]
Nemi El-Hassan: So let's stop believing the muddled minds on both sides and let's start listening to each other with open hearts.
[Once again, Nemi's face is shown in a close-up. She looks straight into the camera and says, smiling slightly:]
Nemi El-Hassan: Hear and see what jihad stands for historically.
[In the background you can now hear soft rhythmic music. The picture of Nemi disappears. The drawn figure of Nemi in a green dress with a waving cloth and hands on her hips is then pushed onto a white surface. To the left of the figure, a hand puts the word jihad in different languages and scripts into the picture, to the right a thought bubble with a question mark and an exclamation mark. A young female voice can now be heard off-screen.]
Speaker: What does jihad mean?
[The individual picture elements are wiped away by the hand. To do this, the words "Jihad" are pushed into the picture from above and the outline of a mountain from below, with a "destination" sign on the summit and a hiker ascending the mountain.]
Speaker: Literally translated, jihad means the effort or the effort to achieve a certain goal.
[The image of the mountain is removed from the image again and two clouds with the words "large" and "small" are placed next to the words "Jihad".]
Speaker: A distinction is made between so-called major and minor jihad.
[The cloud with the word "small" is taken out again and the cloud with the word "large" is replaced by the pictures of an elderly person in a wheelchair being pushed by a younger one, a woman praying on her knees and a woman with books placed on a desk.]
Speaker: The great jihad is a moral and religious effort. The goal is to develop personally.
[The picture elements are wiped away and the cloud with the word "small" is fooled. In addition, the hand puts outline drawings of the Arabian Peninsula and a cavalry squadron armed with spears into the picture. Green arrows pointing outwards and two protective shields are positioned around the image.]
Speaker: The minor or physical jihad describes military combat operations to expand or defend the Muslim territory.
[All picture elements are wiped away by the hand, the picture of a schematic family tree, the Arabic characters for "Mohammed", the drawings of second scholars with scrolls in their hands, the words "Jihad", "large" and "small", are set one after the other, as well as the silhouette of a group and the modernly dressed figures of a man and two women, one of whom is wearing a hijab.]
Speaker: This distinction is derived from the tradition of a companion of Muhammad. It is originally found primarily in Shiite faith traditions, but also among some early Sunni scholars.
Today this distinction between major and minor jihad is made by many Muslims.
[The drawing of a book with the signature "Koran" and a speech bubble with the word "Jihad" are placed in the middle of the white area that has been wiped free again. There is also a calendar sheet at the top left with the annual dates 620-632 and a sign with the inscription "Medina" at the bottom right.]
Speaker: Many Quranic verses on the subject of jihad come from the second period of Revelation in the city of Medina.
[The hand wipes away all the elements and inserts the following pictures one after the other: a calendar sheet "7th century" in the top left, the outline of the Arabian Peninsula in the middle, two armed groups of riders facing each other and finally a scroll with the heading "Martial Law" at the top right .]
Spokeswoman: During this time, the Muslim community was repeatedly involved in fighting and stipulations on jihad were important for the regulation of martial law.
[All pictures except the scroll with the "Martial Law" are wiped away. In addition, there is a stack of books on the left, the top one with the title "Islamic Law", a scroll with the heading "Rules" in the upper middle and a knife with a drop of blood crossed out with two green crossed bars on the right .]
Speaker: These writings were an important part of Islamic jurisprudence. But there were also restrictions and rules for military jihad. Jihad was not a license for unrestricted killing.
[The hand wipes away the picture of the knife and that of the "Martial Law" scroll and places the outlines of the two groups of riders in the middle of the picture and a sign with the words "Stop!" In the top right corner of the picture. as well as the green colored drawings of a woman, a child and an old man.]
Spokeswoman: For example, it was stipulated that even during a war no women, children or old people were allowed to be killed, only weapon carriers.
[All elements are wiped away and a new image is built on the white surface. The outline drawing of the Ottoman Empire in its greatest extent, the silhouette of a cavalry squadron, the green arrows symbolizing the expansion and the calendar sheet "16th century" at the top left are placed in the center. In addition, there is a figure in the upper right, raising his hand with a sign "Caliph" and bearing the speech bubble "Jihad".]
Speaker: The last jihad with the aim of expanding the Muslim territory took place during the expansion phase of the Ottoman Empire. Such a jihad could only be proclaimed by an overriding authority recognized by all Muslims.
[The picture is wiped clean and the modern-clad figures of the two women and the man, as well as the two scholars, are set up. The common speech bubble with the inscription "Jihad = defensive struggle" is placed over their heads.]
Speaker: The majority of Islamic scholars agree on this. However, especially in modern times, most of them say that military jihad can only be waged as a defensive struggle.
[All elements are wiped away and the drawing on a tablet is inserted. The hand presses the drawn button and in the picture is Nemi El-Hassan. She stands at the table again and speaks gesticulating with her hands and smiles slightly at the camera. The real film is then displayed in full screen.]
Nemi El-Hassan: My jihad already starts with getting up early in the morning and following the call to prayer instead of turning around in bed again. Then later to go to college and try to understand what all the books are telling me.
[Nemi is now closer to the picture. She speaks lively and smiling.]
Nemi El-Hassan: My jihad means being patient with my fellow human beings, even if they drive me to white heat and remain stubborn despite the compromises offered.
[Nemi's face can be seen in close-up, first in the middle, then moved to the right.]
Nemi El-Hassan: My jihad means telling the truth, no matter how uncomfortable it becomes, and paying attention when friends tell me their stories, no matter how much my head is spinning. My jihad means being friendly when I am met with unkindness and also reaching out my hand when it reaches into emptiness.
[The picture now shows Nemi at the table again.]
Nemi El-Hassan: My jihad means working and writing, lending my voice to others and when everyone leaves, staying.
[Soft background music starts playing again, the film image of Nemi is zoomed out until it can be seen again in the frame of the tablet and played out there. The tablet is taken out of the picture by the hands. Then the voice of the speaker can be heard off-screen again and new elements are placed on the white surface, first the calendar sheet "13th century" in the top left. The hand tears off the calendar sheet and one with the inscription "21st Century" appears underneath. Two figures are placed in the middle, a young woman and a young man, facing each other. A dove of peace, the logo of the International Criminal Court (a set of scales framed by two olive branches) and the UN logo, which shows a globe framed by olive branches, are placed over their heads. On the right are the drawings of books with the titles "Geneva Convention" and "Human Rights Convention".]
Speaker: Unlike in the past, a culture of peaceful coexistence between most states has developed today. There is, for example, international law and various international conventions.
[The hand wipes away all the pictures. The figures of the two scholars are placed on the left of the empty surface, and the figures of a woman in modern clothes and a man on the right. The hand then places a cloud with the word "Jihad" over the figures, on the left a rifle that is then covered with two green crossed bars and on the right a hijab-wearing woman with her arms spread out like a scale. Above her left hand is a small cloud with a minus sign, above her right one with a plus sign, and above her head a cloud with an exclamation mark.]
Speaker: Many Muslim thinkers over the past two centuries have therefore developed new interpretations of the term jihad. The focus was not on the military definition, but on a theologically justified ethical-moral meaning.
[Except for the cloud with the inscription "Jihad" that remains in the picture above, all elements are wiped away. The picture of the mountain with the hiker and the "destination" sign is pushed in from below. There is also a cloud with the word "large".]
Speaker: In modern interpretations, the fundamental goals of jihad are brought to the fore. Above all, they refer to the origin of the word in the sense of endeavor, effort. This is how meanings of the term developed that can be seen in the context of personality development and social responsibility.
[With the exception of the jihad cloud, everything is wiped out of the picture again. The hand then places a picture on the right that shows a group of students at a table and a teacher at the blackboard and bears the signature "jihād at-tarbiyya". Next to it on the left is the picture of a woman fending off a little devil over her shoulder. Underneath is "jihād ash-shaitān". On the far left is the picture of two intensely debating figures who have scrolls and books in front of them and which have the two signatures "jihād al-lisān" and "jihād al-kalām".]
Speaker: One speaks, for example, of jihad at-tarbiyya - the effort to stand up for education; from Jihad aschaitan - to ward off the bad in oneself; and of jihad al-lisan or jihad al-kalam - the willingness to discuss with one another and resolve differences of opinion with words.
[A globe is pushed from below onto the empty picture surface. All around, the following pictures are placed one after the other: The figure of the woman balancing the plus and minus signs, the scholars discussing and the picture of the students and the teacher, as well as a group of three men with children, two of whom are wearing turbans. Then follow: a girl jumping on a skateboard, a figure sitting cross-legged reading, a person in front of a laptop, a man and a woman, a woman with a pad and pen, a young man with a baseball cap rolling out a prayer rug, a man and a boy praying, a woman playing football with a hijab, and an old woman with a walker.]
Speaker: These interpretations relate to a peaceful, argumentative mediation of Islam, such as reforms in the social and educational sectors.
[The picture is wiped clean and the real film with Nemi El-Hassan is faded in. She can be seen again at the table with the books against a gray background. She smiles and underlines her words with gestures. When she parted, she took her right hand to her temple in greeting.]
Nemi El-Hassan: This video was made in cooperation with the Federal Agency for Civic Education, to which I would like to take this opportunity to thank you very much. In the video description you will find further information, links to videos and the netiquette. Otherwise, please leave your questions, leave all your comments and say everything that is on your mind. There will be experts who read through all of this and then give you the right answers. Otherwise, all I have left is to say goodbye to you on behalf of my team, the date offenders. I say goodbye!
Editing: Pudelskern, Meimberg GmbH
Camera: Pudelskern, Meimberg GmbH
Cut: Pudelskern, Meimberg GmbH
Music: Poodle core
Sound: Poodle core
Speaker: Nemi El-Hassan
Scientific advice: Saliha Kubilay, Marie Meimberg, Prof. Dr. Armina Omerika
Production: December 11th, 2015
Playing time: 00:06:28
ed. from: Federal Agency for Civic Education
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