Who was Kavi Kalidas


Kalidasa (Sanskrit: कालिदास Kālidāsa m.) literally: "Servant (Dasa) of the goddess Kali"; important ancient Indian poet (Kavi) from the 4th / 5th centuries. Cent. C.E .; Indian literature found its way into Europe for the first time through his works; His most famous works include the drama Shakuntala and the art poems Meghaduta and Kumarasambhava.

On the person of Kalidasa

Kalidasa was the one who made Sanskit socially acceptable in India, and around whom legends are still woven today.

Historically, Kalidasa is probably the most famous store of knowledge of Indian national heritage. Achieving artistic excellence earned him a prominent position in the universe of world literary figures. Kalidasa's imagination reserves a successful fusion of the two elements - natural beauty and human feeling. The importance of Kalidasa has continued over the centuries. He had a strong influence on teachers of the Middle Ages as well as on the pioneers of the Indian Renaissance, such as Swami Vivekananda and Rabindranath Tagore. Kalidasa continues to shine beyond the world as one of the greatest exponents of Indian Sanskrit culture.

Kalidasa, Indian poet and dramaturge, lived roughly during the reign of Agnimitra, the second Shunga king (approx. 170 BC) who was also the hero of one of his illustrious dramas "Malavikagnimitra and Aihole". An inscription in 634 AD praises his outstanding poetic skills.

An important fact to mention is that Kalidasa's life and work are free from quarrel and competition. This is arguably the real reason why scholars are digging deeper into this Indian literary legend from prehistoric documents. Apart from the fame of his name, the question of when Kalidasa was active remains open. Most scholars assign to the reign of Chandragupta II (ruled around 380-415 AD). Once again, scholars tried to give an estimate and favor the 4th and early 5th centuries AD, the reigns of Chandragupta II Vikramaaditya and his successor Kumaragupta. Countless documents are assigned to Kalidasa. Most of them, however, are either written by less able poets with the same name or by others who had their own worth. The work of these less skilled writers had only one chance of being associated with Kalidasa. Their own names faded long before they were remembered as legends. It is therefore painful to assume that only seven works can be regarded as authentic.

Almost no facts are known or recognized about the life of Kalidasa, although there are many legends. Outwardly handsome, the Indian man of letters was considered an extremely stupid child who consequently grew up without any schooling. Through the marriage brokerage and the attendance of a shrewd minister, Kalidasa was married to a princess who was very ashamed by her narrowness and vulgar nature. Kalidasa (literally translated means: slave of the deity Kali) was a passionate admirer of Kali, now pleaded with his deity for her may help him and he was promptly gifted with intelligence and common sense. He became the grandiose of the "Nine Gems" that are often mentioned in the court of the Vikramaditya of Ujjain.

There is substantial reason for considering that the Kalidasa was of foreign origin. His name is very unusual and legends tell that he was adopted. The shame that is attached to his nickname "dasa" (slave) is extremely powerful, which is why orthodox Hindus rejected this nickname. Oddly enough, there is also no reliable data on one of the country's greatest writers.

Importance of the works of Kalidasa

Kalidasa was well acquainted with the modern sciences and arts, including politics and astronomy. His knowledge of scientific astronomy was evidently nourished by Greek sources. Viewed as a whole, it appears to be the result of a synthesis of Indians and barbarians and their cultures, which at that time took its course in the north of India. The questionable story that it met its end in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in the hands of a prostitute and that the king of Ceylon then burned himself to death in mourning is generally regarded as untrue by biographers.

As great as Kalidasa was, it was discovered that he had literary weaknesses. He showed little interest in the social problems of his time. His pieces do not reflect the turbulent times in which he lived. Kalidasa showed no understanding for the common man. His works are overloaded with descriptions and tend to be kitschy, verbose and sometimes flippant. In his field he is not surpassed by any other Sanskrit poet, but that is not so valuable, since a Sanskrit drama does not compete with the best in another field.

The life of Kalidasa

Many stories echo down the hallways when it comes to Kalidasa's life. Some call him a native of Kashmir, others say he is from Vidarbha, others mean Bengal and others name Ujjain as a place where he comes from. It is reported that he was a fool. The king's daughter (to whom Kalidasa was later married) was an educated lady and she commented that she would only marry the man she would beat in debating the scriptures "Shastrartha". No matter who sat down again, he would lose his honor, his head shaved to a bald head would then have to leave the country on a donkey. So the Pandits took Kalidasa (for they saw him seemingly cut the branch he was sitting on) for a debate. They stated that Kalidasa was only engaged in silent debates. The princess showed him a finger, with the gesture meaning "Shakti is one". He interpreted it as if she were pointing into one of his eyes, so he showed her two fingers. She took it as a convincing answer after "shakti" is the revelation of the principle of duality (shiva-shakti, nar-nari). She showed him the palm of her hand, fingers stretched back like a slap in the face. He showed her a fist. She in turn accepts this answer to her question. She said "five elements" and he answered "the totality" (earth, water, fire, air and emptiness) (the explanation of the debate is also a later addition).

It goes without saying that the two were getting married and that she should find out that he was a fool. And so she threw Kalidasa out of the house. He immediately rushed to the temple of Ma Kali and threw his tongue at the deity's feet. Kali felt flattered by this gesture and granted him extensive knowledge. When he returned to the house, his wife asked him "asti kashchit vaag-visheshaH" (asti - is; kashchit - as, asking; vaag - speaking; visheshah - expert; which means "Are you a luminary now." Language? ”And the towering Kalidasa wrote 3 books beginning with the words“ asti - asti-uttarasyaam; dishi - Kumara-sambhavam (epic); with kashchit - kashchit-kaantaa - Meghdoot (poetry); with vaag - vaagarthaaviva - Raghuvansha (epic).

Another legend of Kalidasa and his craftsmanship

Another story tells of the fact that he was a friend of the Kumardas of Ceylon (Sri Lanka). He was said to have been killed in a strange way by a courtesan while visiting his friend.

Kalidasa is considered to be the greatest poet of the “shringaar” (romance, beauty). His work is overflowing with Shringaara-Rasa. Sometimes he also used "haasya" (comedy) and "karun" (pathos). There are two facets of “Shringaar” - “Sambhoga” (sam - together, bhoga - to consume exuberantly as in consumer), therefore Sambhoga - stands for being together, the romance of being together, the happy love poems; and "Vipralambha" - which stands for parting.

The Indian man of letters felt at home in both worlds and both were ceremonially and religiously incorporated into the poems of Kalidasa - in verses that are permeated with "Vipralambha-Shringaar" and "Sambhoga-Shringaar". The comedies by Kalidasa are also very much to be recognized, they do not bring the loud laughter, but conjure up a slight smile on every corner of the mouth. Kalidasa was not only a master of comedy, he surpassed any pathos or drama that was already written. In the pieces by Kalidasa, the embodiment of the pictorial representation is particularly to be emphasized as well as the wealth of variants and diversity, which was important in his time.

Kalidasa made extensive use of "Artha-Alankaar" and is legendary for his "Upamaa" (metaphors). His metaphors are of particular clarity, wholeness and beauty. His observations are both astute and subtle. he is well versed in the nature of the human mind. Kalidasa has an extensive knowledge of the scriptures. His "Utprekshaa" (parables) and "Artha-Antaranyaas' (conversion of meaning) are also worth special mention. He used" Shabda-Alankaar "as well as" Anupraasa "(alliteration)," Yamaka "(repeating the same word, however Kalidasa loved the softer side of nature and showed the reader calm and pleasant ashramas, sandy beaches, gardens, palaces, bumblebees, deer, cuckoos etc. His love for the Himalayas is enormous.

Kalidasa, the legendary Indian Sanskrit man of letters, was at least as well versed in human psychology. He is a master of hiding the emotions through the meaning of the action or the action itself. This brought several dimensions to his work, whereby Kalidasa belongs to the so-called vaidarbhi style. He had absolute mastery of the language. His vocabulary is quite simple, as is his grammar. His words, however, are very consciously chosen. He never used words such as "hi, cha, vaa '(also; and) to complete the metric of a sentence. If he did use these words once, then only s for one special purpose.

Kalidasa's knowledge of the structure and structure of verses is very thorough and deep. He used most of the well-known verse metrics (chanda) in Sanskrit. In one chapter he only uses one metric and then uses a new metric in the next chapter. The whole "Meghaduta" work is in "Mandaa-Krantaa" metric (2-2-2, 2-1-1, 1-1-1, 2-2-1, 2-2-1, 2-2) .

Kalidasa and his worldview

Kalidasa was a faithful follower of the Vedic "Sanatana Dharma". He believed in the social structure "Varna Ashram", which means nothing else than the caste system (four "castes" and the four associated four "Ashramas", ie the stages in a person's life in the social structure). He believed in Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha. Moksha was his ultimate goal, followed by Dharma. Then came Kama. He advocated "Tyaga" (the observation of non-enjoyment) and "Tapasya" (frugality / restraint). Kalidasa preferred tapovana (forest ashrams) to palaces. He was a real devotee of Shiva and honored Shiva in all of his opening chapters of his writings (Mangala-Acharan). He put society above the individual. Kalidasa was also a pure optimist. Although he recognized death as the most natural thing and life as a beginning of it, he considered life itself to be a grand completion in itself.

The spiritual name of Kalidasa

Kalidasa, Sanskrit कालिदास kālidāsa m, is a spiritual name and means Servants of the Kali, name of a famous poet from around the 4th century, Chr. Kalidasa can be given to aspirants with the Kali mantra.

Short lecture by Sukadev on Kalidasa as a spiritual name

The spiritual name Kalidasa Sanskrit कालिदास kālidāsa

Kalidasa is a spiritual name for aspirants who have the Kāli mantra. Kalidasa means the servant of Kali, Dasa means servant, Kali is the dark goddess. Kalidasa as a name should mean, you see Kali as your master, as your queen, as the goddess herself and you want to serve Kali. And you want to do everything you do for Kali, because the whole world is a manifestation of the Divine Mother.

Everything you do is to be offered to the divine mother. In this sense, Kalidasa should mean that you ask the divine mother for guidance, you want to see everything that comes as the task of the divine mother. You also know that Mother Divine wants you to develop. You see in her the great master who brings you through many challenges to grow really well. In this sense: Kalidasa can mean that you are Kali's servant and you trust your divine master. You want to offer everything you do to the divine mother and you don't have to take on too much responsibility yourself. You can always hand over responsibility to the divine mother. You can let it work through you, you can let yourself be told again and again “not my will, but your will be done. Send me your light and your truth to guide me. Everything I do, I do for you ”.

Different spellings for Kalidasa

Sanskrit words are written in Devanagari in India. In order for Europeans to be able to read this, Devanagari is transcribed into Roman script. There are different conventions on how Devanagari can be transcribed into Roman script. Kalidasa in Devanagari is written "कालिदास", in IAST scientific transcription with diacritical marks "kālidāsa", in Harvard-Kyoto transcription "kAlidAsa", in Velthuis transcription "kaalidaasa" , in modern Internet Itrans transcription "kAlidAsa".

Video on the topic of Kalidasa

Kalidasa is a Sanskrit word. Sanskrit is the language of yoga. Here is a lecture on yoga, meditation and spirituality

Similar Sanskrit words like Kalidasa

Here are some links to Sanskrit words that either have a similar meaning in Sanskrit or in German as Kalidasa or in German or Sanskrit in the alphabet before or after Kalidasa:

Similar Spiritual Names

See also


More information on Sanskrit and Indian languages

Summary German Sanskrit - Sanskrit German

Sanskrit Kalidasa - German Name of various poets
German Name of various poets Sanskrit Kalidasa
Sanskrit - German Kalidasa - Name of various poets
German - Sanskrit Name of various poets - Kalidasa


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