Who was Jean Piaget 1
The Piaget development stage model
Biography Jean Piaget
Development stages as [printable PDF version]
Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) developed the theory of "genetic learning" (also "structural-genetic" theory), which deals with the explanation of the cognitive development of children. The focus is on the interaction between a child and its environment. Piaget is referred to as the "father of developmental psychology" (see Spektrum der Wissenschaft, 2002).
His findings are based on the observations of his own children, who made certain (thinking) errors depending on their age. With this approach, Piaget clearly differed from experimental psychologists who use (and use) complicated test arrangements for research in specially set up test laboratories.
Piaget examined the structure of children's logic on the basis of his empirical observations of natural behavioral processes and developed an epistemological justification from this: He established the connection between children's thinking and the developmental phase. In short: he devoted himself to observing the child's development of thinking.
Based on his observations, Piaget built his model of the four developmental stages, according to which every person goes through these phases or stages of cognitive development in the course of his development. According to Piaget, the phases are universal, i.e. they occur in all cultures.
Each of these stages / phases is characterized by specific features. It is particularly relevant that children's thinking differs from the thinking of an adult in every (developmental) stage. If something is plausible and logical for an adult, it does not have to appear plausible and logical for a child as well.
It is important that the levels build on each other, but the age assigned to each level is only to be regarded as a guide: the transitions between the individual levels are fluid and the respective age can vary individually (see Piaget & Inhelder, 1972, p. 153 )
The stages of development according to Piaget:
(Depending on the author, there are slight differences in the names of the phases / stages)
|Before discussing these four stages in detail, let's look at some basic assumptions of the Jean Piaget model; these basic assumptions serve as the basis for the four stages of the child's development of thought.|
According to Piaget (see Mietzel, 2001, 75), four factors have an influence on cognitive development:
- Active experience,
- social interaction,
- Striving for balance.
|According to Jean Piaget, an individual strives for a balance (equilibrium) between assimilation and accommodation. |
By assimilating and accommodating, an individual uses or extends their schemes.
In case this sentence was not entirely understandable - here comes the explanation:
Adaptation (adaptation to the environment)
A scheme forms the Basic building block of human knowledge. A schema is an organized pattern of knowledge or behavior.
Terms are branched out and networked with one another in such a way that they are brought into an (individual) logical context. A scheme serves as a 'mental template' (template), for example for an action with which one - without thinking - can act in the same way.
Schemas are individual (i.e. different in each person) categories or networks in which objects or events can be classified according to certain rules.
|Piaget differentiates between schemes |
(a) Behavior patterns (also action schemes) such as a scheme for running, a scheme for lying down, a scheme for stooping, etc. and
(b) cognitive schemas such as schemes for objects, which is built on the basis of their properties.
Behavioral schemes and cognitive schemes are in turn linked with one another so that mixtures result, as the adjacent diagram of a scheme shows.
Schemas develop through the differentiation of knowledge (accommodation,see below). For example, a child knows that you have to bite more carefully into a cookie than into bread because of the crumbs.
In this context, a branched system of index cards can be imagined under scheme: You have created an index card for 'bread', which contains a description of how to deal with 'bread'.
Example of a scheme:
Please imagine how inconvenient it would be if nobody knew how to handle food: You get a slice of bread and you don't know what you can or should do with it. So give it a try ... but you cannot save the knowledge you have gained.
Quotes on schemes according to Piaget:
In the case of an infant, there are still few such schemes or "index cards" available, but these increase significantly with increasing age and with increasing exposure to the environment. The corresponding "index card" is opened when a stimulus requires a reaction - and the child 'knows' how to react.
|The adaptation (adaptation) of the existing schemes - i.e. the individual knowledge networks - to a current situation takes place via assimilation and accommodation.|
"Piaget viewed cognitive development as an event of the constant interplay of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation preserves and expands what already exists and thus connects the present with the past, and accommodation arises from problems posed by the environment, i.e. from information that is not to fit what you know and think. " Zimbardo & Gerrig (1999, 463)
assimilation(Alignment, approximation, amalgamation, structure preservation)
Means assimilation Incorporation of new experiences or experiences into an already existing scheme.
Through assimilation, stimuli from the environment are classified into what is already known. The existing knowledge is used to classify a situation that appears to be similar. If necessary, the perception is changed / reinterpreted in such a way that the existing cognitive structures (schemas) are sufficient to cope with the situation.
One child has already learned that
- an apple has to be brought to the mouth,
- the mouth has to be opened and
- a piece has to be bitten out.
If this child now meets a pear, assimilated the child [After all, apples and pears also look similar] and goes with the pear just like with an apple around.
Quotes on assimilation:
Accommodation (Adaptation, accumulation, enrichment, environmental adaptation)
Accommodation means that Extension or adaptation of a scheme (i.e. the cognitive structures) to a perceived situation that cannot be mastered with the existing schemes.
Accommodation only comes about when assimilation is insufficient to cope with a situation, i.e. a situation or a stimulus cannot be integrated into an existing scheme. The existing schemes are insufficient and need to be expanded.
One adapts to what is found, whereby the scheme is expanded and thus differentiated. Accommodation means adapting the existing cognitive structures in such a way that they (again) correspond to reality and are useful for improved (since more differentiated) problem solving in the future.
The attempt of a child to suckle on a building block is supported by assimilation if the building block appears similar to an edible object. However, since the building block does not contain any food, assimilation is not enough to cope with this situation. The child has to accommodate: The scheme is expanded (perhaps by adding: Not blue, not made of wood, ...) to the index card 'Food'.
If a situation cannot be mastered successfully by using the contents of existing schemes [assimilation], the corresponding scheme must be expanded to include the new knowledge [accommodation].
Quotes on accommodation according to Piaget:
"From a pedagogical-psychological point of view, it is important that a learner initially interprets new things against the background of what is already known. ... There would be no reason to question and expand this knowledge if (him [Linus, example. P . 72]) would not be given an opportunity to gain experience in handling biscuits. " Rent (1998 a, 73)
Image source: Mietzel (1998 a, 72)
In this example, Linus first tries to assimilate: He tries to handle the biscuit as he is used to with bread: You can bend a slice of bread. After a few unsuccessful attempts accommodated he: A biscuit can Not to be equated with bread. Although both are something edible and baked, there are differences. A biscuit is different from a slice of bread - the existing scheme must be expanded (accommodation) as it is not enough.
"Indeed, one finds accommodation and assimilation at all stages of the development of intelligence, but they are always better differentiated and complement each other better and better in their growing equilibrium." Piaget (1975, p. 207)
|Assimilation:What is perceived fits into the already existing, cognitive structures (schemes).|
Accommodation:The cognitive structures (schemes) must be adapted to the new situation, as the existing structures are not sufficient for the solution.
Adaptation / equilibrium(Striving for balance)
Assimilation and accommodation are forms of adaptation (adaptation) of the individual to his environment. Living organisms strive for a balance (equilibrium) between assimilation and accommodation.
Quotes on equilibrium according to Piaget:
Stages of cognitive development
According to Piaget, there are four phases or stages in the child's development of thinking (also: "the cognitive development").
Each of these levels builds on the previous level. Piaget believed that all children go through these stages in the same order, although the pace of development may be different. "It should be noted once and for all that age information in this book always only means an average and still approximate age" (1977, note 1, p. 119). "Lück & Miller (1999, 134) is particularly relevant Knowledge of the levels, e.g. for educators, teachers or parents.
The levels illustrate, for example, the importance of working with examples and symbols during the first years of school; this information could thus be incorporated into lesson planning.
Attempts should be made to present problems to a child at an appropriate level of difficulty according to their level of development. A very active concept of upbringing can be derived from the approaches of Jean Piaget, which is based on the world of the child (and not the world of the adult).
Overview of the four stages of development:
0 to 2 years old - infancy
A child gains experience in the first two years of life
During the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development, intelligence only occurs in the form of motor activity in response to sensory stimulation (cf.Mönks & Knoers, 1996, 154)
Piaget divided the sensorimotor level into six sub-levels:
1st to 4th month of life: Primary circular reactions
4th to 8th month of life: secondary circular reactions
8th to 12th month of life: Intentional behavior
12th to 18th month of life: Tertiary circle reactions
18th to 24th month of life: transition to the pre-operational phase
2 to 7 years - kindergarten and preschool age
Thinking is still full of logical errors, since childlike thinking is dominated more by perception than by logic. For example, at the beginning of the preoperational phase, children believe that a boy can become a girl if he plays girls' toys (e.g. dolls).
anthropomorphism (or the tendency to humanize)
Children imitate what they have observed: they play the role of their parents, drive a car or act out situations and characters that they have observed on television.
In the pre-operational phase, a misunderstanding is often "learned" which is countered by set theory:
The "transfer task" (part 1)
The child considers his (current) view to be the only view, not one of many.
The child cannot imagine the field of vision of pos. 2 or pos. 3 from the field of vision pos. 1 - even if it has previously looked at the other two perspectives.
"Interview excerpt (Hall, 1970):
"The child understands something about classes because it can identify objects; however, its understanding is incomplete because it cannot yet distinguish between apparently identical members of the same class ..." Lefrancois (1994, 132)
|Phase of the concrete operations|
7 to 12 years - primary school age
| From the age of seven and eight, perception no longer has such a major impact on the formation of judgments.|
Concrete thinking operations become possible: The child can consider several dimensions of a situation: Classes, series and numbers are no longer a problem either.
The "transfer task" (part 2)
"While the pre-operational thinking child is mostly still fooled by his perception impression, as a concrete operational thinker he knows the correct answer. If a quantity is not added to or taken away from a quantity, this is how he explains his answer, it remains unchanged (aspect of identity). Also if the column of liquid looks higher in one glass and lower in the second, the seven or eight year old child takes into account both height and width (aspect of compensation). " Rent (1998 a, 86)
The concrete operational thinker also manages to add subclasses (e.g. white pearls + brown pearls = wooden pearls) and the conclusion (e.g. wooden pearls - white pearls = brown pearls). See Mietzel (1998 a, 87)
For many concrete thinkers, however, it is still very difficult to understand unrealistic assumptions (“Assuming cars could fly, ...).
|Formal operations phase|
from approx. 12 to 15 years - adolescence
By reaching the stage of formal operations, the individual is able to completely solve problems on a hypothetical level. Logical conclusions are just as possible as the mental variation of variables.
"The first (Piaget, 1961) is a simple test of verbal reasoning of the type: A> B; A
Exercise slide for the phases
Worksheet for "Piaget's Introduction to Cognitive Development"
Worksheet for "Piaget - Development of Thought"
An important goal of "development aid" in the sense of Jean Piaget should be to enable and stimulate independent development. Only the individual himself is active in his development. The more opportunities are offered to deal with one's environment, the more positive human development is. Piaget viewed intelligence as a special case of biological adaptation. The task of the environment consists in the provision of materials and the creation of problem situations that arouse children's interest and stimulate independent, active problem-solving.
This goal is closely related to constructivism.
- Who discovered that all planets move
- What's the saddest K-pop song
- Which is the best freelance trading website
- Why is my WhatsApp status blurry
- What are common scams in Barcelona
- How is shark DNA like humans?
- What is the two-part regulation of the IBA
- Where does the sunlight come from
- Would you consider vlogging to be narcissistic
- What is the scope of biotechnology 1
- What is the best English crime series
- Can I see your personal pictures
- What do you think of Marie Yovanovich
- Has anyone seen UCEED 2017 question paper
- Is Smirnoff Russian
- Do blog comments really affect ranking?
- How was the Titanic unsinkable
- How do internet entrepreneurs make millions
- If 5x 8 x what is x
- What is the secret of David Blaine
- Can I get dental implants for free
- Where do I find my past time
- What does a hissing spider look like
- How can I do an internship in Kseb