What are the names of the computer programming books

History of free and open source software - History of equity and trusts

In the years and in those years in which the computer operating software and the compiler are within the framework of hardware capabilities without separate delivery authorizations. At that time, the source code that belongs to the human readable form of software, generally with the software that belongs to the rights North, bugs for the new features. The future were early adopters of computer technology. Many of those affected by those who have been modified have been altered to defy the principles of knowledge sharing. Contribute maturity major stating that relate to the closure of the software. Utilities and other applications with the functions everyone else has rights and new personal relationships to manage software sharing.

Release techniques before software

The concept of the free exchange of technological information existed long before computers. For example, in the early years of automobile development, a company must have the rights to a 2-stroke gasoline engine patent that was old by George B. Selden. By controlling this patent, they will monopolize the industry and include automakers, maintain their rights or risk legal action. In 1911, the owned automaker Henry Ford was challenging the Selden patent. The result was that the Selden patent became safe and a new association became. The was to become the association of motor vehicle manufacturers. The new association has a way of signing a license agreement between all US automakers to take over these patents openly and without exchanging money between all. When the US entered World War II, 92 Ford patents and 515 patents were issued to other companies between those dealings with no money.

Free software for years

In the years of work and trust, the entire software was quickly developed by scientists and company researchers in collaboration and

In 1969 the Agency Network for Advanced Research Projects (ARPANET) became a high-speed transcontinental computer network. The network (successful through the Internet) made it easier to exchange software code.

Some free software that was developed in the old years is preserved and used, such as B. TeX (developed by Donald Knuth) and SPICE.

The security takeover of the free software

: As an operating and programming language compiler itself, the software production costs cost compared to hardware development. A possible software industry competed with the bundled software products of the hardware manufacturers (the costs for bundled products were included in the hardware costs), leased machine software software without any software support and and customers-customers their own, better than that The costs for the manufacturer's software are bundled with the costs for hardware products. On January 17, 1969, the Policy for the US Government is set for the US Government for the US Government. The following under software available for sale under limited licenses.

In the early years of being free and able to learn and manage from Unix, it wasn't free software in the modern sense of the term either. The Unix itself in the early years when the system patches are free. Since it is a question of belonging to a different architecture, the greatest researchers have licensed it.

Software was not considered to be copyrighted until the US Commission on New Technological Publishers of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) of 1974 developed that "are computer programs that they have an authorized knowledge of the contents of copyright". . Hence, the software were not licensed and given as public domain software, owned with source code. The CONTU decision, as well as the Apple v Franklin case law in 1983 for the object code, gave computer law the copyright status of literary works and the licensing of software and the shrink-wrap closed-source software business model.

In the major contracts and early years of the computer vendor and software-only company, managing the software as "program products" and imposing legal descriptions for new software developments now becoming contract owners through copyrights, trademarks, and leases. In 1976, Bill Gates wrote an essay titled "Open Letter to Hobbyists" in which he expressed his dismay at the widespread distribution of Microsoft's Altair BASIC offering by hobbyists without expressing legitimate royalty rights. In 1979, AT&T began exercising its licenses when the company managed to sell off the sale of the Unix system. In a government guidance letter dated February 8, 1983, IBM has policy management to no longer control sources with purchased software.

In order to be heard of the sale, a general trend began not to be heard of source code (easily readable by programmers) and became only belongable machine code compiled from source code. One person who was particular affected by this new practice was Richard Stallman. He feared that he would no longer program programs that were external written by others, or or modified functions. Stallman called this practice to be ethically wrong. In response, he owned the GNU Project in 1983 so that users could only use computers with free software. In 1985, he signed a religious organization, the Free Software Foundation, to make the project more formal. He invented copyleft, a form of protection to preserve the "free" status of a copyrighted work, and implemented this in the GNU General Public License. With copyleft licenses, authors can be owned a number of rights that differ license or remain unlicensed. Because derivatives are given combinations with other original episodes, downstream authors are prevented from dying work in proprietary software contracts, and from contributing to the copyleft commons to manage. Licenses owned by others.

heard and 1990s

Informal software release is done

There were always more people who shared their source code with other programmers and / or the like for free, then called "hobbyists" and "hackers". Before the introduction and widespread public use of the Internet, there were various alternative visibility, listings in computer magazines (Dr. Dobbs Journal, Creative Computing), SoftSide, Calculate! , Byte, etc.) and in computer programming books such as the bestselling BASIC Computer Games. The value for Atari BASIC) was reported in mass market books. and Inside Atari DOS (important source for Atari DOS).

SHARE program library

Founded in 1955, the SHARE user group began selling and distributing free software. The first documented management of SHARE was dated October 17, 1955. The "SHLA Program Library Agency" (SPLA) verifies information and software related to magnetic tape.

DECUS tapes

In the early years, the various DECUS tapes became a global free software transfer system for DECUS users. Beneficiaries were proprietary software's rights, but many tools like the editor, text formatter drain, utility for listing list files, etc., are purchased to protect users' lives, and on the DECUS tapes policy kages benefits from DEC that it belongs to itself in new, own, own owners, and better half Ratfor (and Ratfiv) the answers, from Fortran coding to structured programming The Decus tape from 1981 was important for the most innovative, for the virtual management Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory software tools for users of a Unix system on DEC 16-bit PDP-11s and 32-bit

Online software sharing communities over the years

In the years parallel to the movement of free software software with source code code was put together in BBS networks. This was a last one; Software that was written in BASIC and other interpreted languages ​​was only sold as source code, and one of those owned was freeware. As a user contacts, trust source code to collections and boards permissions to his rights, this was de facto an open source system.

One of the personal decisions for this is one of the BBS systems and networks, WWIV, which means in

In administration, the advent of Usenet and UUCPNet in the early years further linked the programming community, providing programmers with an easier way to share their software and contribute to the software others had written.

Start of the movement for free software

In 1983 Richard Stallman improved the GNU project in order to write a manual for free of belongs to heard at his source code. Among the same consequences to die is a case where a hiding printer is not resolved because the desired source code has been withheld. In 1985 Stallman also used the GNU Manifesto to outline the purpose of the GNU Project and the importance of free software to be heard. Another likely inspiration for the GNU Project and its manifesto was a disagreement between Stallman and Symbolics, Inc. over MIT's access to updates, the symbolism, and its Lisp machine-based rights-based code. Shortly after the redemption term "free software" and the Free Software Foundation started to belong to the concept. The definition of free software was discontinued in February 1986.

In 1989 the first version of the GNU General Public License was developed. A slightly updated version 2 was changed in 1991. In 1989, some GNU developers used Cygnus Solutions. The GNU Project's kernel, later called the "GNU Hurd", was branched delayed, but the others proclaimed were maintained. Some of these, certain the GNU Compiler Collection, were market leaders in their own right. The GNU Debugger and GNU Emacs were also noteworthy.

Linux (1991 - today)

The Linux kernel started by Linus Torvalds became possible in 1991 as freely modifiable source code. The license was not a free software license, but with version 0.12 in February 1992 Torvalds licensed the project under the GNU General Public License. As with Unix, Torvalds' kernel aroused the observant programmers.

Until this certain loss, the lack of a kernel in the GNU project means that there are no separate rights for free software. Torvalds' kernel development closed this final loophole. The combination of the fast GNU violations and the Linux kernel have the first property for free software.

Among Linux distributions is Debian GNU / Linux, which was created in 1993 by Ian Murdock, because it was safe to die for the GNU and interesting FSF free software principles. The Debian Developer Principles are contained in the Debian Social Contract. The Debian project has been associated with the FSF since its year and was decided by the FSF for one year from 1994–1995. 1997 for the sake of the Debian project leader Bruce Perens also in the experience of software in the public interest, a relationship and responsibility organization for various free software projects.

Since 1996 the Linux kernel has belonged to proprietary licensed components, which are no longer part of free software. Therefore, the Free Software Foundation Latin America 2008 a modified version of the Linux kernel belongs to Linux-libre, in which all proprietary and non-free owners are acquired.

Many companies offer customized Linux contracts products or distributions with agents. The naming remains. The entire system is owned simply as "Linux". The Free Software Foundation and many other people who justify "GNU / Linux" and say that this is a more accurate name for the whole.

Linux introduced in the 1990s and 2000s among companies and years. Access to the English-speaking world, Ubuntu and its derivatives became a relatively popular group of Linux distributions.

The Free BSDs (1993 - today)

When the USL against BSDi lawsuit was outwardly settled in 1993, FreeBSD and NetBSD (as both of 386BSD) received software as well. 1995 gave OpenBSD from NetBSD. In 2004, Libelle forked BSD from FreeBSD.

The dotcom years (late 1990s)

In the mid to late years, when many website responsibility companies were also established, free software became a popular choice for web servers. The Apache HTTP Server was noted for web server software, a title that is even more as of 2015. Systems that are based on another "stack" of software with the Linux kernel and the Apache providing the web services, the MySQL database module for data storage and the PHP programming language for dealing with dynamic pages have been referred to as LAMP systems. Different was Perl, the programming language that predated PHP and dominated the Web in the mid and late 1990s. Web forms are run on the server side via Common Gateway Interface scripting written in Perl.

The start of open source

1997 Eric S. Raymond concerns "The Cathedral and the Bazaar," a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free software principles. The paper received widespread attention in early 1998 and was one of the factors that motivated Netscape Communications Corporation to launch its popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software.

to love who belonged to Raymond at Netscape and others to belong to how principles and personal can become free software for the public software industry. They concluded that the social activism of FSF companies like Netscape is not scrutinizing, and that after a person, the free software movement, about the management potential of the public use of source code.

The label "Open Source" indicated action by some people in the free software movement at a strategy meeting in Palo Alto, in response to Netscape's role of a source in January 1998, when Netscape released code for Navigator. Among the group of people at the Chores Meeting Christine Peterson who suggested "Open Source" were Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann, and Eric S. Raymond. For the past week, it has been a practice for Raymond and others to keep the word focused. Linus Torvalds gave an important sanction the following day. Phil Hughes offered a pulpit in the Linux Journal. Richard Stallman, pioneer of the free software movement, flirted with the instructions for the term, but thought otherwise. Concerns who have heard the term, related to the loss of Navigator's source code, in order to stay away from the ideological and conformational connotations of the term "free software". Netscape tries its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the Mozilla Public License.

. The term refers to a person who became Tim, a big push from O'Reilly, in April 1998 from technology publisher. Originally heard as "Freeware Summit" and later heard as "Open Source Summit", the person who heads the personal and open source projects together includes Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski from Netscape and Eric Raymond. At that meeting, the names free software denial was raised. Tiemann effect for "sourceware" as a new term, for Raymond for "open source". The rights owners were known by and the winner was announced one evening on another. Five days later, Raymond made the first call to the free software community. The open source initiative was administered for a short time. According to OSI, Richard Stallman is flirting with the idea of ​​using the open source term too. But when the enormous success of the open source term buried Stallman's term for free software and its message about social values ​​and the freedom of computer users, Stallman and his FSF lie to their own accord about the approach and terminology of the OSI. The name of the open source software by Stallman is the FOSS Complaints in its terminology. See also alternative terms for free software. A 2002 FOSS developer survey found that 32.6% affiliated with OSS, 48% affiliated with free software, and 19.4% affiliated with or undecided. Still, Stallman still realizes that the users of the personal verb terms are in the fight against proprietary software.

On October 13, 2000, Sun Microsystems becomes the StarOffice office suite as free software under the GNU Lesser General Public License. The free software version was renamed OpenOffice.org and co-existed with StarOffice.

At the end of the nineties the term "open source" in the public media and in the software industry in connection with the dot-com bubble and the open source software Web 2.0.

Desktop (1984 - today)

A historical example of a graphical test and application developed in the distribution of the MIT X consortium under the window manager twm: X Terminal, Xbiff, xload and a graphical manual page Browser

The X Window System was created in 1984, and in the mid-1990s it became the de facto standard window system in acts for free desktop software. X is run as a server and is used to communicate with graphics hardware on behalf of clients. There north standing services such as multiple virtual desktops for surveillance monitors and the transmission of visual data over the network, access to a desktop can be remotely accessed.

Initially, users or system administrators have their own rights from X and, under window managers, the standard window controls; , Pager, docks and other software. One can experience the convenience and ease of use will be X without a window manager.

In the 1990s, two heavyweight "heavyweight" Desktopum connections were made for free software management that were far-reaching: KDE and GNOME. KDE was founded in 1996 by Matthias Ettrich. At that time he was acting on the inconsistencies in the UNIX user interfaces. He requests a new desktop environment. He also loses this desktop making it easy to belong. His first Usenet post received great interest.

Ettrich is sure to use the Qt toolkit for the KDE project. Qt does not have a free software license for this shared access. Members of the GNU project empower themselves with the use of a toolkit to build a desktop environment with free software. In August 1997 two projects were bought in response to KDE: the Harmony Toolkit and a GNOME (another desktop without Qt, which belongs to acquired free software) 378> GTK + was selected from the Qt Toolkit as the basis for GNOME.

In November 1998, the Qt toolkit was licensed under the free / open source Q Public License (QPL), the debate over compatibility with the GNU became a general public license (GPL). In September 2000, the Unix version of the Qt libraries was made available to Trolltech under the GPL security for the QPL. KDE was received in KDE Plasma Workspaces, a desktop environment, and KDE Software Compilation, a much broader software belonging to the desktop environment.

More KDE as well as GNOME are now participating in a freedesktop.org, an attempt to standardize Unix desktop interoperability mapping, although still competitive between them.

Software written for X since 2000 is quick to always use a widget toolkit written for X, like Qt or GTK.

In 2010 Canonical will be the first version of Unity, a replacement for the standard Ubuntu desktop environment, GNOME. This change of a new one in the development of a particular desktop environment and a particular war under Ubuntu relationship problems.

In 2011, GNOME 3 was sold, abandoning the desktop metaphor to a more mobile shared responsibility. The emerging controversy most controversial Debian, which belongs to Xfce environment on Debian 7 as the default. Different Projects Projects belongs to the GNOME 2 code belongs to itself.

Fedora did not choose the unit and that is choosing a choice from GNOME, KDE and LXDE. Fedora, for which Fedora is sold as the "first test bed", has not closed the unit either. A fork in Ubuntu was received from interested third-party developers who have discarded GNOME rights and Unity in future releases and abandon their efforts to develop Unity-based smartphones and tablets.

when Google built the Linux-based Android The operating system, mainly for phone and tablet devices, replaced X with the specially developed SurfaceFlinger.

. Open source developers also criticized X as outdated and included many unused or overly complicated elements in its log and libraries. B. Compositing, screen savers, and functions provided by window managers. For these reasons, several attempts have been or are being made to replace X, including:

  • The Y window system, the development of which was discontinued until 2006.
  • The Wayland project started in 2008.
  • The Mir project was launched in 2013 by Canonical Ltd. started to make a replacement window system for Ubuntu.

Microsoft, SCO and Others Produce Attacks (1998-2014)

As free software grew in popularity, established companies like Microsoft saw it as a serious threat. This was shown in a 1998 leaked document that was confirmed to be genuine by Microsoft and was the first of the Halloween documents.

was designated. Steve Ballmer once compared the GPL to "cancer" but has since stopped using the analogy. In fact, Microsoft has tempered its public attitudes towards open source in general, with open source having since become an important part of the Microsoft Windows ecosystem. At the same time, Microsoft's actions were behind the scenes for the open source community.

SCO against IBM and the associated bad publicity (2003 - today)

Less Favorable in 2003, a proprietary Unix vendor and ex-Linux distribution company named SCO, alleged that Unix's intellectual property was inappropriately copied into the Linux kernel and sued IBM, claiming it was responsible. Several related lawsuits and counterclaims followed, some from SCO and others from others suing SCO. However, SCO's allegations lacked specificity and while some in the media described them as credible, many critics of SCO found the allegations highly dubious at best.

In the course of the SCO versus IBM case, it emerged that SCO had not only distributed the Linux kernel under the GPL for years and continued to do so (and thus rendered all of them legally difficult to maintain), but that SCO did not even have the copyrights to one Owned much of the copyrighted Unix code and had no right to use it on behalf of the alleged owner, Novell.

This happened despite the fact that SCO's CEO Darl McBride had made many wild and harmful allegations of improper media appropriation, many of which were later found to be false or legally irrelevant, even if true.

Groklaw blog was one of the most forensic reviewers of SCO's allegations and related events, and gained its popularity by treating this material for many years.

SCO suffered defeat after defeat in SCO against IBM and its various other lawsuits and filed for bankruptcy in 2007. Chapter 11 Despite the courts' finding that SCO did not own the copyrights (see above) and SCO's lucky CEO Darl McBride, who no longer runs the company, the trustee in charge of SCO's bankruptcy decided some parts of which he claimed they remained relevant in SCO's lawsuit against IBM. He could apparently afford to do so, as SCO's main law firm in SCO v IBM had initially signed an agreement to represent SCO for a fixed amount of money, no matter how long the case lasted.

In 2004, the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution (ADTI) announced its intention to remove the book Samizdat: and Other Problems Associated with the "Source" of Open Source Code

Many suspected that some or all of these legal and fear, uncertainty and doubt (FUD) attacks against Microsoft's Linux kernel were covertly arranged, although this has never been proven. However, both ADTI and SCO received funding from Microsoft.

European Commission v Microsoft (2004–2007)

In 2004, the European Commission found Microsoft guilty of anti-competitive behavior related to interoperability in the workgroup software market. Microsoft had previously settled the US against Microsoft in 2001 in a case accused of illegally abusing its monopoly power to get computer manufacturers to preinstall Internet Explorer.

to force. The commission asked Microsoft to produce full documentation of the working group protocols to allow competitors to collaborate with the working group software and fined € 1.5 million per day for non-compliance by Microsoft. The Commission was responsible because Microsoft sells the software in question in Europe.

After a failed attempt to appeal the decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union, Microsoft finally complied and produced volumes of detailed documentation.

The Samba project, Microsoft's only remaining competitor in the workgroup software market, was the primary beneficiary of this documentation.

ISO OOXML Controversy (2008 - Present)

In 2008, the International Organization for Standardization published Microsoft's Office Open XML as an international standard, which decisively meant that it and therefore Microsoft Office could be used in projects in which the use of open standards was required by law or politically. Critics of the standardization process, including some members of the national ISO committees involved in the process itself, stated that they had irregularities and procedural violations in the process and argued that ISO should not have approved OOXML as a standard because it pointed to undocumented Microsoft Office behavior Referred.

As of 2012, there is no correct open source implementation of OOXML, which confirms the comments made by critics that OOXML is difficult to implement and not well specified. At this time, Google Office documents cannot correctly convert to its own proprietary Google Docs format. This suggests that OOXML is not really an open standard, but rather a part of document that describes what Microsoft Office does and only includes certain file formats.

Contributions from Microsoft to open source and acquisition of related projects

In 2006, Microsoft launched its open source code hosting site CodePlex to provide hosting platforms to open source developers targeting Microsoft. In July 2009 Microsoft even released some Hyper-V -supporting patches for the Linux kernel as an open source version, as required by the GNU General Public License, and they are part of the main kernel. Note that Hyper-V is not open source itself. The Microsoft compiler F #, created in 2002, was also published as open source under the Apache license. The F # compiler is a commercial product because it was built into Microsoft Visual Studio, which is not open source.

Microsoft representatives have been appearing regularly at various open source and Linux conferences for many years.

In 2012 Microsoft founded a subsidiary called Microsoft Open Technologies Inc. with the aim of bridging the gap between proprietary Microsoft technologies and non-Microsoft technologies by introducing open source standards. This subsidiary was later re-incorporated into Microsoft as Microsoft's position became more favorable on open source and non-Windows platforms.

In January 2016, Microsoft released Chakra as open source under the MIT license. The code is on GitHub.

available. Microsoft's stance on open source changed as the company began supporting more open source software. In 2016, Steve Balmer, former CEO of Microsoft, withdrew his statement that Linux is a malicious cancer. In 2017 the company became a platinum supporter of the Linux Foundation. Until 2018, shortly before the acquisition of GitHub, Microsoft topped the charts for the number of paid employees who contributed to open source projects there. While Microsoft may or may not endorse the original free software philosophy, data shows that open source is strategically supported.

Critics noted that Microsoft sued Foxconn's subsidiary in March 2019 under a 2013 patent deal; In 2013, Microsoft had a patent agreement with Foxconn for the use of the Linux-based Android and Chrome OS.

Open source and programming languages

announced by Foxconn. The vast majority of the programming languages ​​used today have a free software implementation available.

Since the 1990s, the release of important new programming languages ​​in the form of open source compilers and / or has been the norm rather than the exception. Examples of this are Python in 1991, Ruby in 1995 and Scala in 2003. The most notable exceptions in recent times have been Java, ActionScript, C # and Apple's Swift until version 2.2 was proprietary. Partially compatible open source implementations have been developed for most, and in the case of Java, the main open source implementation is now very close to the commercial version.


The Java platform has not been open source since its first release in 1996, although the Java source code portion of the Java runtime is in

However, several independent partial re-implementations of the Java platform have been made, many of them by the open source community, such as B. the GNU Compiler for Java (GCJ). Sun has never filed any lawsuits against any of the open source cloning projects. GCJ in particular caused a poor user experience for Java in free software supporting distributions like Fedora and Ubuntu, which GCJ shipped as a Java implementation at the time. How to replace GCJ with the Sun JDK was often asked by users because GCJ was an incomplete implementation, incompatible, and buggy.

In 2006, Jonathan I. Schwartz became CEO of Sun Microsystems and signaled his commitment to open source. On May 8, 2007, Sun Microsystems released the Java Development Kit as OpenJDK under the GNU General Public License. Part of the class library (4%) could not be published as open source because it was licensed by other parties and included as a binary plug. For this reason, Red Hat launched IcedTea in June to resolve the burdened components with the equivalents from the implementation of GNU Classpath. Since release, most of the stresses have been fixed, leaving only the audio engine code and color management system (the latter needs to be fixed with Little CMS).

Distributed version control (2001 - present)

The first distributed open source revision control system (DVCS) was 'tla' in 2001 (since then in

However, other DVCS projects emerged and some gained increasing acceptance.

Git (2005 - today)

Git, the most popular DVCS, was created in 2005. Some developers of the Linux kernel used a proprietary DVCS called BitKeeper, particularly Linux founder Linus Torvalds, although some other kernel developers have never used it due to its proprietary nature. The unusual situation in which the development of the Linux kernel involved the use of proprietary software "came to a head" when Andrew Tridgell began reverse engineering BitKeeper with the aim of creating an open source tool that could provide some of it of the same functionality as the commercial version. BitMover, the company BitKeeper developed in response, revoked the special free license it had granted certain kernel developers in 2005.

As a result of the BitKeeper license removal, Linus Torvalds decided to write his own DVCS called git, believing that none of the existing open source DVCS were suitable for his particular needs as a kernel maintainer (which is why he called BitKeeper had adopted in the first place). A number of other developers quickly jumped in and helped, and over time Git evolved from a relatively simple "dumb content tracker" (on which some developers developed "china" extensions) to the sophisticated and powerful DVCS, the it is today. However, Torvalds no longer entertains himself; It has been maintained by Junio ​​Hamano for many years and has continued to receive contributions from many developers.

The increasing popularity of open source DVCSs like git and, later, DVCS hosting sites, the most popular of which is GitHub (founded in 2008), gradually reduced the barriers to participating in free software projects even further. With sites like GitHub, potential contributors no longer had to search for the URL to the source code repository (which could be in different places on each website or sometimes hidden in a README file or developer documentation) or learn how to get one Create a patch and, if necessary, subscribe to the correct mailing list so that the patch email is sent to the right people. Contributors can easily share their own copy of a repository with one click and send a pull request from the appropriate branch when their changes are done. GitHub has become the world's most popular open source software hosting site. Coupled with the ease of forking and the visibility of forks, GitHub is a popular way for contributors to make changes, big and small.

Recent developments

While copyright is the primary legal mechanism FOSS authors use to ensure license compliance for their software, other mechanisms such as laws, software patents, trademarks, and are also used.In response to legal problems with patents and the DMCA, the Free Software Foundation released version 3 of its GNU Public License in 2007, which explicitly deals with digital rights management

After the development of the GNU GPLv3 as the copyright owner of many parts of the GNU system, such as the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) software, the FSF, most of the licenses of the GNU programs were updated from GPLv2 to GPLv3. Apple, a user of GCC and a heavy user of DRM and patents, has decided to convert the compiler in its Xcode -IDE from GCC to Clang, another FOSS compiler, but which is under an approved license. LWN speculated that Apple was motivated in part by a desire to avoid GPLv3. The Samba project also switched to GPLv3, which Apple replaced in its software suite with a proprietary closed-source software alternative.

The recent mergers have affected large open source software. In 2008, Sun Microsystems (Sun) acquired MySQL AB, owner of the popular open source database MySQL.

Oracle was in turn bought So in January 2010, acquiring its copyrights, patents and trademarks. This made Oracle the owner of both the most popular proprietary database and the most popular open source database (MySQL). Oracle's attempts to commercialize the open source MySQL database have raised concerns in the FOSS community. Partly in response to uncertainty about the future of MySQL, the FOSS community converted the project into new database systems that are beyond Oracle's control. These include MariaDB, Percona, and Drizzle. All of these have different names; They are different projects and cannot use the MySQL brand name.

Android (2008 - today)

In September 2008, Google released the first version of Android, a new smartphone operating system, as open source (some Google applications that are sometimes but not always bundled with Android are not open source). Originally, the operating system was made available by Google for free and has been eagerly adopted by many mobile phone manufacturers. Google later bought Motorola Mobility and made its own "vanilla" Android phones and tablets while other manufacturers could still use Android. Android is the world's most popular mobile platform today.

Since Android is based on the Linux kernel, Linux is now the dominant kernel both on mobile platforms (via Android) and on supercomputers and an important player in server operating systems as well.

Oracle versus Google

In August 2010, Oracle sued Google, alleging that the use of Java in Android infringed Oracle's copyrights and patents. The first test of Oracle against Google ended in May 2012 with the finding that Google had not infringed Oracle's patents, and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java application programming interfaces (APIs) used by Google were not copyrighted. The jury found that Google had committed a minor ("de minimis") copyright infringement, but the parties agreed that Google would not pay any damages because it was so trivial. However, Oracle appealed to the Federal Circuit, and Google filed a cross-appeal against the literal copy right. The Federal Circuit ruled that the minor copyright infringement recognized by Google was not minor and sent the fair use issue back to the trial judge for reconsideration. In 2016, the case was re-examined and a jury was awarded to Google for fair use.

Chromium OS (2009 - now)

found. Until recently, Linux was a relatively rare operating system choice for desktops and laptops. However, Google's Chromebooks with Chrome OS, which are essentially a web thin client, have captured 20-25% of the US under $ 300 laptop market. Chrome OS is built on open source Chromium OS, which is based on Linux, much like versions of Android that ship on commercial phones are based on open source versions of Android.

See also


External links

  • Elmer -Dewitt, Philip (July 30, 1984). Software is for sharing, time.
  • Richard Stallman speaks about Free Software and the GNU Project 1986, Sweden
  • David A. Wheeler on the history of free software, from his "Look at the Numbers!" paper
  • The Demon, the GNU and the Penguin by Peter Salus
  • Documents related to the BSD lawsuit that led to 386BSD and then FreeBSD
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (January 1999)
  • The story of Cygnus Solutions, the largest free software company in the early 1990s
  • LWN.net's timeline 1998-2008, part 1 (part 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
  • A. Brief History of FreeBSD, by Jordan Hubbard
  • UNESCO portal for free software
  • Infinite Hands, a freely licensed folk song about the history of free software.