Are protons negative or positive
- Electric charge, formulas (3:08 minutes)
Structure of an atom
Atoms are basic building blocks of matter, every body consists of atoms or molecules.
The structure of an atom can be roughly divided into Atomic nucleuswhich is made of electrically neutral Neutrons and positively charged Protons exists and the Atomic shell, which from the negatively charged Electrons consists. According to Bohr's atomic model, the electrons are on circular paths around the nucleus.
Due to their electrical neutrality, the neutrons are unimportant for the electrical charge of a body and are therefore not shown in the following sketches.
Electric charge of an atom
The charge of an atom results from the sum of the positive charges minus the sum of the negative charges, i.e. the number of protons minus the number of electrons. If an atom has more protons than electrons, it is positively charged, it has more electrons than protons it is negatively charged. If an atom has as many electrons as protons, it is electrically neutral.
The following animation shows a sodium and a chlorine atom. Both are normally electrically neutral. However, with certain electrochemical processes it can happen that they accept or release electrons.
Charged atoms are called Ions called, positively charged ones are called cations and negatively charged anions.
Cations have one Electron deficiency and anions one Excess electrons.
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