What makes a stable connection
Stability of chemical compounds
The stability of chemical compounds
Chemical compounds exist i. d. Usually from several atoms or ions, these are held together by the chemical bond (atomic bond, metal bond and ionic bond). This chemical bond is based on electrostatic interactions (metal and ionic bonds) or interactions between valence electrons of two atoms that form a common pair of electrons (atomic bond).
Now the question arises, how can one find out how stable a connection is?
The question arises as to what a stable connection is. This could be answered in such a way that the compound can be obtained as a product in a reaction and this can also be isolated. If one looks at an (exothermic) reaction, there are two “types” of stable products.
- One is the kinetically stable product that is the first to arise in a reaction and which in itself forms an isolatable (detectable) product. This kinetically stable state is mostly only a metastable state, i.e. if enough activation energy is added, the system can reach the most energetically favorable state (thermodynamically stable state). As a rule, the activation energy is so low that practically only the thermodynamically stable state of a compound exists.
- The thermodynamically stable product is different. A product is stable in the thermodynamic sense if the reaction under consideration (= production of the product) shows a negative change in Gibbs energy (D G <0). It could also be formulated in such a way that the change in Gibbs energy is positive for every chemical change in the thermodynamically stable compound (D G> 0)
In addition, one can ask how stable a connection is compared to another connection:
The comparison between elements is much easier (this is also discussed here on Lernort-Mint.de), and one makes use of the electrochemical series. The reduced form of an element reacts with the oxidized form of an element when the reduced form has the more negative normal potential, e.g. Na (red. Form, - 2.71 V) + Cl 2 (ox. Form, + 1.36 V) to NaCl (for more details see: Redox process prediction).
The question of the stability of a connection in relation to other elements or connections is not so easy to answer universally. Since the question of "stability" must always be asked about stability in relation to what, e.g. to acids, to oxidizing agents, reducing agents, etc. There are different methods for the different concepts:
- Base + acid in an acid-base reaction - aids are the acid constants pKs or the HASB principle
- Compounds vs. oxidizing agents or reducing agents - Aids are the normal potentials or their difference D E °
- Metal oxides usually dissolve in water to form the corresponding base (metal hydroxide)
- Non-metal oxides usually dissolve in water with the formation of the corresponding acid.
- Base metals and water react to hydrogen and the corresponding base (metal hydroxide).
- Precious metals do not react with non-oxidizing Brönsted acids (an oxidizing acid is e.g. HNO3)
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