Who taught Gurdas Maan singing

ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂਜੀਕਾਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ॥ ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂਜੀਕੀਫ਼ਤਹਿ॥

Waheguru ji ka Khalsa - Waheguru ji ki Fateh

Sikh encyclopedia | Sikh Encyclopedia | Glossary

Sikh encyclopedia


from the beginning of time.

Aad Sach

from the beginning of time, true.



Aasraa, Aasraa de na

Giving protection, backing, the terminology comes from the Gatka, the Sikh martial art).

Akaal Ustat (Akal Ustat)

Praise to the timeless One Creator. Akaal Ustat is the 2nd composition in the Sri Dasam Granth, (271 verses and a half verse, 10 Savaiyas) by Sri Guru Gobind Singh.


Fireworks, firearms (Agny Astra).

Adi Guru Granth (Guru Granth Sahib)

is the first compiled collection of scriptures of the sacred hymns of the Sikh Gurus, Bhagats and Bhatts, also known as Pothi Sahib and Adi Granth. The fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev, compiled the Adi Guru Granth. Bhai Gurdas served as scribe to Guru Arjan Dev. Guru Arjan Dev included his own 2218 hymns as well as the verses of the saints Bhagats and Bhatts (Sufi saints, Hindus and Muslims) to the hymns of the Sikh gurus. These saints were in accord with the teaching of the Sikh Gurus, of the One Universal Creator God, Ik Oankar. The verses of the Bhagats and Bhatts belong to the so-called Sachi Banis (see Sachi Bani). They are based on a direct experience of consciousness and God. The holy Bhagats meditated on the name of God and realized the oneness with the highest All-Soul, with Paramatma. The Adi Guru Granth is the manifest expression of God's direct word, which the Sikh Gurus and the Bhagats received in their divinely anchored consciousness and revealed to humanity. The Adi Guru Granth points to the eternal, all-underlying unity of God. The message and teaching of the Sikh Gurus is universal, transcendent, timeless, eternally valid. The Adi Guru Granth teaches the method of union with the Almighty Creator. The Adi Guru Granth is the embodiment of the ten Sikh Gurus, in him dwells the eternal light and the unadulterated truth of God, revealed by the Guru. In the Adi Guru Granth the essence of love and peace (Prem and Shant Ras) is manifest. The Adi Guru Granth was solemnly installed in the Sri Harmandir Sahib in 1604. Baba Buddha Ji became the first major Granthi in Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, added the hymns of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur to the Adi Guru Granth and thus completed the Holy Adi Granth. In 1708 Guru Gobind Singh appointed the Adi Guru Granth as "Eternal Living Guru of the Sikhs" and transferred the Gurushood to the Eternal Shabad Guru. Since then the title "Guru Granth Sahib" has been used with the addition of "Siri" (Sri) to emphasize holiness and respect. The Siri Guru Granth Sahib represents the highest spiritual, religious authority in the Sikh faith.


In the Sikh faith, the aarti is a bani (prayer) composed by Satguru Nanak Dev. It can be read in Siri Guru Granth Sahib.

Agan Bhet

Funeral; Cremation.


effortlessly, without worries.




Ego, I-consciousness (see Haumai / Homai).


The teaching of non-violence and non-harm.

Ajuni (Ajooni)


Akaal (Akal)

eternal, immortal, timeless. A terminology to describe the transcendental, eternal, immortal Creator.
(See Akaal Purakh)

Akaal Bunga (Akal Bunga)

Originally: the home of the Lord. Another name for the Sri Akaal Takht in Amritsar. In Sri Anandpur Sahib is the Akal Bunga, where the decapitated head (Sis) was cremated by Guru Tegh Bahadur.
(More information under Historical Gurudwaras)


Admirer, worshiper, follower of the immortal, timeless One Creator. The name Akali was originally used for the "Nihang Singhs", the defenders of the Sikh faith, the Sant-Siphai of the 18th century.

Akali Dal

In 1919 the Akali Dal political party was founded. After 1925 the members of this political party were also known as "Akalis". The leaders of the first phase of the Akali Dal were persons of high moral character and a source of inspiration for a nonviolent political renewal movement. After the division in 1947, Akali Dal split into two main political parties. The Akali Dal party has now split into other Akali Dal parties, such as United Akali Dal etc.

Akaal Purakh (Akal)

the immortal, timeless One Creator who is beyond time and space.

Akaal Takht (Akal Takhat)

Throne of the immortal, timeless, eternal Creator. The Sri Akaal Takht is the highest seat of the Sikh temporal authority. Guru Hargobind Sahib, the sixth Sikh Guru, laid the foundation stone for the Sri Akaal Takht. In 1606 the Nishan Sahib flag was installed over the Sri Akaal Takht as a mark of the True Guru. The five main thrones in the Sikh religion are:
Sri Akaal Takht, Takht Sri Kesgarh Sahib, Takht Sri Patna Sahib, Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Takht Sri Damdama Sahib.
(More information can be found under five takths)

Akhand Path

Akhand means 'without interruption' and 'path', the reading and recitation of Gurbani. The Akandh Path is the 48-hour continuous reading of the Holy Guru Granth Sahib, which is carried out without interruption. During this period of time, four pathis (readers) usually take turns.


Arena, e.g. the fighting arena for Gatka, wrestling.


are verses that are sung to express praise and to people who are leaving this world. In Siri Guru Granth Sahib, the sacred hymns are sung in praise to praise the wonderful Creator and Enlightener. To him and Guru alone all love, honor, thanks, devotion and longing are expressed in Sikhi.


immortal, ambrosial nectar, immortality.
In Sikh baptism, the baptismal water is called 'Amrit'. During the preparation of the baptismal water, the 5 morning prayers: Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib, Tav Prasad Savaiye, Chaupai Sahib and Anand Sahib (all 40 verses) are recited. The direct word of the formless Creator, Gurbani and Waheguru Naam are the Amrit for the spirit, for the soul.


is a person (f / m) who is baptized in the Sikh baptism Amrit Sanchar (Khande di Pahul). The baptized Sikhs are known as 'Amritdharis' and belong to the Khalsa Panth, the community of the pure and sovereign. Amritdharis follow Rehat Maryada, the code of conduct for baptized Sikhs. The Khalsa Panth has the task of preserving and protecting the foundations of the Sikh faith, the Gurmat doctrine and the legislature of the Sikh Gurus.

Amrit Sanchar (Khande di Pahul)

describes the traditional baptism ceremony for Sikhs that was initiated on Vaisakhi in 1699 by Guru Gobind Singh in Sri Anandpur Sahib. For the baptismal water, pieces of sugar are crushed in a Sarbloh Batta, which is filled with water, with a Khanda (double-sided sword). The five prayers, the Panj Bania - Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib, Tav Prasad Savaiye, Chaupai Sahib and Anand Sahib (all 40 verses) are recited by the five loved ones, the Panj Pyare. The principles and guidelines for the original baptism ceremony were laid down by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, in 1699. The process of the Amrit baptism is described in the traditional Gurmat Rehat Maryada as well as in the Sikh Rehat Maryada (SRM). The Amrit baptism is traditionally performed by five Sinhgs, the five beloved.

Amrit Vela

refers to the immortal, heavenly hour that begins about 3 hours before sunrise. As a rule, Amrit Vela covers the period from midnight to 5 a.m. Amrit Vela is described as the ideal time to practice Waheguru Naam Meditation, Mool Mantar Meditation and Panj Bania, the five morning prayers. Amrit Vela is also defined as the time to pull consciousness out of darkness, ignorance, overshadowing and attachment in order to awaken it.

In Amrit Vela, the ambrosial hours before sunrise, recite the True Name of God and ponder His glorious greatness.
(SGGS, Ang 2)

Whoever calls himself a Sikh of the Guru, the True Guru, should get up at Amrit Vela in the early hours of the morning and meditate on the name of God.
(SGGS Ang 305)

At the appointed time in Amrit Vela, the ambrosial hours of the early morning, devotees lovingly turn their attention to the Lord and to the Lord's riches. The followers of the Lord plant the seed of riches from the name of God in the heavenly hours of Amrit Vela; they consume it, they spend it, but the name remains inexhaustible.
(SGGS, Ang 734)

Anand Karaj

blissful union. Anand Karaj is the traditional Sikh marriage between two Sikhs based on a four stanza Lavan composed by Guru Ram Das. The fourth Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das, established the principles and guidelines for Sikh marriage for the Sikh community with the introduction of Anand Karaj. During the Sikh marriage, Anand Karaj, the couple walks around the Siri Guru Granth Sahib. Walking around the Holy Guru Granth Sahib is a sign of love, respect, devotion, humility and confession towards the Eternal Living Guru of the Sikhs. The Sikh marriage 'Anand Karaj' is a promise to make the Eternal Shabad Guru the center of his life. In the Anand Karaj, the woman and the man surrender their mind, body and soul to the Eternal Guru. God is the true husband (Husband Lord) and the individual soul, the blissful bride (Soulbride). To love, serve and follow God / Guru is the promise. The Sikh follows the instructions of the Sikh Gurus and the Gurmat teaching. The walking around also includes the couple's request to receive blessings, protection and guidance for the life together from God / Guru. The Siri Guru Granth Sahib is the highest spiritual, religious authority in the Sikh faith. The divine light of truth, knowledge, wisdom, self-knowledge manifest and revealed in the Gurbani, consolidates this community. In the Sikh faith, walking around the Siri Guru Granth Sahib is called Parkarma designated. In a Sikh marriage, both souls marry with Guru / God, with the almighty transcendental Creator Soul, with the pure immortal consciousness.

The feet that make parkama around Guru Sahib are priceless.
Those feet that do Parkarma of Guru Sahib are priceless.
(Kabitt Savaiye, Bhai Gurdas)
Beloved husband, if you take my hand I will never let you down.
Beloved Husband, if you take my hand, I shall never forsake you.
(SGGS, Ang 322)
They alone are called man and woman who have one light in two bodies.
They alone are called husband and wife who have one light in two bodies.
(SGGS, Ang 788)
There is only one husband, God, and all are his brides (soul bride)
There is one Husband Lord, and all are His brides (soulbride).
(SGGS, Ang 933)

* Note: Interfaith Marriage - Anand Karaj?
It is often asked whether a Sikh and a non-Sikh have one Anand Karaj perform Gurudwara in a Sikh. The answer is no. Sikh marriage is exclusive according to the instructions of the Sikh Gurus, the Gurmat Rehat Maryada and the Sikh Rehat Maryada only to be performed between two Sikhs. Similar to a church wedding with Christians, both spouses must first profess the Christian faith in order to be married in church. There is a similar regulation with the Muslims, the Hindus and in the Jewish community. The Gurmat Rehat Maryada, as well as the Sikh Rehat Maryada, and the Rehat names describe in detail the basics and guidelines for traditional Sikh marriage.
The Anand Karaj was established by the fourth Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das, and anyone who describes themselves as a Sikh, a disciple of the Guru, should not disregard the Guru's word and instructions. This is not Gurmat, but Manmat. Guru Gobind Singh also gives the instruction in his 52 Hukamname to give the hand of the Sikh daughter only to one Sikh man. The Sikh Gurus have laid the foundations for their Sikh community. If it should happen that a board (committee) of a Gurudwara violates the Rehat Maryada of Anand Karaj, the Gurudwara Committee should be informed about the basics of the Anand Karaj of baptized Sikhs and Sri Akaal Takht, the highest seat in Amritsar about it be informed. A Gurudwara is not a private company, but the house of the Guru, where the Gurmat teaching of the Sikh Gurus is to be respected. Every Gurudwara is subject to the Sikh Rehat Maryada.

Anand Sahib

is the Bani (prayer) for bliss composed by the third Sikh Guru, Guru Amar Das. The Anand Sahib is one of the five morning prayers of the daily nitnem for baptized Sikhs. According to the original Amrit baptism in the Khalsa Panth of 1699, all 40 verses are recited. The Anand Sahib is also recited in the traditional Sikh marriage, 'Anand Karaj' after the four Lavan stanzas to describe the blissful union with Guru / God. The Bani can be found on Ang 917 in the SGGS.

Anbhav Prakash

The perception of the reality that a person who has become Gurmukh enjoys.


Body part, limb. The term "Ang" is usually used out of respect when referring to the pages of Holy Guru Granth Sahib. A Sikh usually uses the terminology of "Ang". The Siri Guru Granth Sahib is the Eternal Living Guru of the Sikhs, the highest spiritual authority in the Sikh faith. The direct word of the formless Creator, the Gurbani is timeless, the ever-living, ever-valid universal truth, which is true from the beginning through all ages, manifest in the Shabad Guru. The Siri Guru Granth Sahib is Jaagdi Jot, the embodiment of the light and knowledge of God and the ten Sikh Gurus.


Actions, activities, deliberate falsifications, misinterpretation and insults directed against the Sikh Gurus, against the Gurmat teachings and against the highest authority in the Sikh faith, the Holy Guru Granth Sahib.

Ardas (Ardaas)

the word is derived from the Persian 'arzdasht'. The Ardas is a prayer of supplication and intercession by the Sikhs, which is addressed to the almighty Creator Waheguru to ask His mercy and blessings. The Ardas is a petition to God. It includes Waheguru (God), the ten Sikh Gurus, the five loved ones, the four sons of Guru Gobind Singh, saints and Sikh martyrs, the five Takhts of the Sikh religion etc. Performed in all Sikh ceremonies, in the Saadh Sangat and in all important (personal) undertakings. The first nine lines are from the Sri Dasam Granth by Guru Gobind Singh. The following verses of the Ardas were written by Bhai Mani Singh, Shaheed.

Arth (Artha)


Asa di Var

is a bani (prayer) that Satguru Nanak Dev wrote in 24 cantons. Asa means hope and Var means hour. It is prayer in the hour of hope. The Asa di Var is performed very melodiously. At the Battle of Chamkaur, Guru Gobind Singh commissioned His Sikhs to carry out the Asa di Var to Amrit Vela.
(More information under Sikh prayers)


A prayer is divided into pauri or astpadi. They are known as verses, hymns and chapters. These are compositions in Siri Guru Granth Sahib, which consist of "eight verses".


A place within the Sri Darbar Sahib known as the site of the 68 pilgrimage sites.

Atma (atam)

The immortal soul (individual).
Paramatma describes the omnipotent, omnipotent cosmic All Soul of the Creator.

Baba (Ji)

Father, grandfather, a salutation for the Granthi in a Sikh Gurudwara, for an older, knowing person of respect, for the teacher, leader or leader of a spiritual Sampardaye, Jatha, order.A Baba Ji should embody love, devotion, compassion, knowledge, understanding, virtue, truth, righteousness, and strength.

Bachitar Natak (Bachittar Natak)

"The wonderful drama". The autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in poetic form. Bachitar Natak comes third in the Sri Dasam Granth on Ang 56. More information at www.srihemkuntsahib.de


A special ax that was used in war. Dealing with this Shastra is trained in Gatka, the Sikh martial art.


Tiger claw. It is carried by many Nihang Singhs on the Dastar with other smaller weapons.


A lance used by Sikh soldiers on horseback or on foot.

Baisakhi (Vaisakhi)

marks New Years Day in India. During Guru Period, that day fell on the last week of March. Today this day falls on the second week of April. Guru Amar Das, the third Sikh Guru, set this day as the National Day of Gathering for all Sikhs from near and far. Those who could not come in March visited Guru Maharaj in October. At Baisakhi, also known as Vaisakhi, the Khalsa Panth of Akaal Purakh Waheguru was manifested on earth in 1699 through Guru Gobind Singh. Baisakhi is also celebrated as the harvest festival in Punjab.
(See Vaisakhi)


Mercy, grace, goodness, blessings.


Word, holy hymn, prayer (see Gurbani). Guru Amar Das, the third Sikh Guru, taught the meaning of a. Sachi Bani: These are the sacred hymns inspired by truth, direct spiritual God experience and revelation. They are authentic and true. All the hymns in Siri Guru Granth Sahib are called "Bani". The hymns of the Sikh Gurus are called Mehla I, II, III, IV, etc. classified. The Sikh Gurus anchored in divine consciousness, always signed the hymns in the Holy Guru Granth Sahib with the name Nanak. This symbolizes the oneness with Satguru Nanak Dev, who was the manifest, visible Sargun form of Akaal Purakh Waheguru on earth. The hymns that come from the Hindu saints are as Bhakta Bani (Bhagta Bani) known. The hymns that come from the Sufi saints are called Sheikh (Pir) Bani designated. The verses added by the Bhatts (bards) are as Doom Bani known. All in the collective are called Gurbani designated. Gurbani is the direct word of the formless Creator, which the Sikh Gurus and the saints received and uttered in their consciousness. The holy Bhagats and Bhatts believed in the One Immortal, Almighty God. They meditated on Naam, the name of God. These Bhagats realized the oneness with God and were in harmony with the teaching of the Sikh Gurus. As a sign of their own experience of God and as a sign of universal brotherhood, they were included in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Amar Das further explains what b. Kachi Bani are: Kachi means immature, false, apocryphal. These are verses that, although poetic in expression, are based on imitations, inauthenticity, false or hypocratic themes, fantasies and cults. Kachi Banis are significantly influenced by sagas, legends and prophetic predictions. Kachi Banis do not have a foundation based on truth and authenticity. They are not based on true, direct experience and God realization.


is a blessed water fountain for public use for all persons. In the Sikh faith, the principle of a baolis is based on non-discrimination. Everyone has access to the water well. The third Sikh Guru, Guru Amar Das, had the famous Baoli Sahib built in Goindwal to receive blessings. Baoli Sahib became the first Sikh pilgrimage center for Sikhs. Guru Arjan Dev had another baoli built in Lahore etc.


A composition over the twelve months; from Guru Arjan Dev in Raag Majh in Siri Guru Granth Sahib, from Satguru Nanak Dev in Raag Tukhari in SGGS and from Guru Gobind Singh in Krishna Avtar (Sri Dasam Granth).

Benti (Benati)

A request, an appeal to the Sikhs around the world.

Benti Chaupai (Chaupai Sahib)

Sikh prayer by Guru Gobind Singh from the Sri Dasam Granth. The Benti Chaupai is one of the five morning prayers of the Nitnem.

Beeraa (Bira)

Accept a challenge, accept a difficult task.

Beer Vidya (Bir Vidya)

Acquire knowledge of the art of war.


Saint. In Siri Guru Granth Sahib there are a total of 15 Bhagats, whose verses and hymns are included. They were Sufi saints, Hindus and Muslims. They came from different social classes and religious communities. The Bhagats were included in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib as a sign of the ever-valid message and truth of God. These saints meditated on Naam, the name of the Lord, and realized oneness with the Creator.

Bhagti (Bhakti)

Devotion, worship, meditation.
In the Sikh faith, Bhagti is understood, described and expressed as the spiritual power, strength, love, devotion, meditation, prayer and Shabad Kirtan for the praise of the One Universal Creator God - Ik Oankar alone.
In Hinduism, for example, bhakti is one of three main paths (marags) to salvation of the soul.
1. Bhakti Marag, describes the devotion and worship for the three main Hindu gods (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva) as well as for the numerous other Hindu gods / goddesses, nature deities, planets, rituals, yagyas, singing, dancing and serving.
2. Jnana Marag is the path of spiritual knowledge and
3. Karma Marag is as the path known as action and activity.
In Sikhism true Bhagti only refers to the love of God / Guru, to the one eternal, timeless Creator who creates, maintains and dissolves everything. The Sikh is the disciple and servant of God, by Ik Oankar. A Sikh (student) prays, serves and follows only this one universal God who is the father and mother of all creations and living beings. A Sikh only follows the Gurmat teaching of the Sikh Gurus. In the Sikh faith, the principle of Bhagti (devotion, meditation, worship) and Shakti (power, strength, strength, energy, authority) are inextricably linked, manifest in the Sikh doctrine of Miri-Piri, Degh-Tegh, Sangat-Pangat, Sant-Sipahi. Thus, the concept of Bhagti in Sikhism is fundamentally different from that of the Hindu concept and that of the Bhakti Movement.


Bhai is used as a salutation for brother. The terminology is also used for Sikhs who have developed spiritual knowledge, in the form of "Bhai Sahib". The Sufi saints in Sikh history have been addressed as "Bhai". The introduction of "Sant" (Saint) was used later.

Bhai Gurdas

was a famous Gursikh, poet, preacher and Brahmgiani. He served a total of 4 Sikh Gurus and was entrusted with responsible tasks. Under the personal supervision and guidance of the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev, he served as the scribe for the 'Adi Guru Granth' later known as Siri Guru Granth Sahib. Bhai Gurdas are famous scriptures Vārān and Kabitt Savaiye. These scriptures are among the most important documents in the Sikh faith. They are the key to understanding the Sikh Gurus, the basis and philosophy of the Sikhi, the distinct Gurmukh path. When Guru Hargobind Sahib was imprisoned in the Gwalior Fort, it was Bhai Gurdas who took care of the affairs of Sri Harmandir Sahib. Bhai Gurdas left the world on Bhadon Sudi 8, Samvat 1694 (AD 1637). The sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind Sahib, personally cremated the body of Bhai Gurdas in Goindwal.

Bhatts (bards)

In addition to the holy Bhagats, the hymns of the Bhatts (bards) were also included in the Adi Guru Granth. The young historiography of the commissioned SGPC scholars publishes 11 Bhatts. However, the number of Bhatts included in Siri Guru Granth Sahib is 17 (see Siri Guru Granth Sahib).


is the original calendar of the Sikhs, which is based on the dates of the moon.

Bir Asan

special seating position during the Amrit Sanchar christening ceremony in the Khalsa Panth.
The sitting position of warriors.


This term has two meanings.
a. At the Akhand Path, the 48-hour continuous reading of Siri Guru Granth Sahib. Here bhog means the conclusion, the termination of the entire reading.
b. In relation to food, bhog means offering the food for Guru Maharaj.


Area, terrain, war field,


is a person who has realized knowledge about God and His creation mechanisms in his own consciousness.

Bole Sonihal - Sat Siri Akaal

A loud Sikh exclamation of victory (see Jaikara). The first part "Bole Sonihal" means: Everyone who says this may have bliss, happiness and joy. The second part "Sat Siri Akaal" means: The existence of the timeless, eternal Creator is forever true (victorious).

Buddh / Buddhi

Intellect, intelligence, knowledge.

Budha Dal (Buddha Dal)

A historically significant Nihang Panth. The Khalsa Army of Veterans. (see Nihangs).

Chak Nanaki

The land of Makhowal, owned by Guru Tegh Bahadur of Kehloor (known as Anandpur Sahib 1665 A.D.)

Chakra Asan

The wheel position.

Chardi Kala / Chardikala

means maintaining an optimistic outlook on life that is independent of negative influences and circumstances. Chardi Kala describes the unshakable trust in the grace and blessings of God / gurus and in the ultimate righteousness of God. Whatever happens, the righteousness and truth of God will prevail. Chardi Kala teaches: Never give in to despair or the terror of oppression. Chardi Kala is described as the state of consciousness in which one is neither bound to joy nor sorrow. A person who dwells in the state of Chardi Kala does not judge or flatter anyone. She remains untouched in joy, sadness, respect and disrespect. Those who reside in Chardi Kala live neither in the past nor in the future, but in a sublime state of the present. The Lord abides in their hearts. Kala means one sixteenth of the moon. When the moon rises, it appears with the light of sixteen parts and shows itself in its full glory. The symbol of the moon shows here that the light shines through under all clouds and will fully assert itself against the clouds to its full form. In the Sikh faith, all problems and difficult karma are viewed as temporary, as a test, a challenge, a reparation (karma compensation) for the individual's spiritual growth on the way to God.
Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Satguru, teaches in the Eternal Shabad Guru on Ang 633:
ਜੋ ਨਰੁ ਦੁਖ ਮੈ ਦੁਖੁ ਨਹੀ ਮਾਨੈ॥
ਸੁਖ ਸਨੇਹੁ ਅਰੁ ਭੈ ਨਹੀ ਜਾ ਕੈ ਕੰਚਨ ਮਾਟੀ ਮਾਨੈ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ॥
ਨਹ ਨਿੰਦਿਆ ਨਹ ਉਸਤਤਿ ਜਾ ਕੈ ਲੋਭੁ ਮੋਹੁ ਅਭਿਮਾਨਾ॥
ਹਰਖ ਸੋਗ ਤੇ ਰਹੈ ਨਿਆਰਉ ਨਾਹਿ ਮਾਨ ਅਪਮਾਨਾ ॥੧॥
ਆਸਾ ਮਨਸਾ ਸਗਲ ਤਿਆਗੈ ਜਗ ਤੇ ਰਹੈ ਨਿਰਾਸਾ॥
ਕਾਮੁ ਕ੍ਰੋਧੁ ਜਿਹ ਪਰਸੈ ਨਾਹਨਿ ਤਿਹ ਘਟਿ ਬ੍ਰਹਮੁ ਨਿਵਾਸਾ ॥੨॥
ਗੁਰ ਕਿਰਪਾ ਜਿਹ ਨਰ ਕਉ ਕੀਨੀ ਤਿਹ ਇਹ ਜੁਗਤਿ ਪਛਾਨੀ॥
ਨਾਨਕ ਲੀਨ ਭਇਓ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿਉ ਜਿਉ ਪਾਨੀ ਸੰਗਿ ਪਾਨੀ ॥੩॥੧੧॥

Chaur Sahib

is a ceremonial fan / frond, the symbol of sovereignty. In the Sikh faith, the Chaur Sahib is swung out of respect over the Siri Guru Granth Sahib. In earlier times, the Chaur Sahib was used over the head of the king or emperor as a sign of respect, royalty and sovereignty. The Siri Guru Granth Sahib is the Eternal Living Guru of the Sikhs, the King of Kings, who embodies and reveals the Eternally True, Transcendental Almighty Word of God, the Gurbani.

Charan Amrit

describes the Sikh baptism in the period from Satguru Nanak Dev to Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru. The Guru's lotus feet were washed with water, you touched the water with your feet while "Gurbani" was recited. This water was then drunk by the aspirate. With this he / she was blessed as a Sikh and accepted into the house of the guru. The Guru's Sikh was blessed with Bani, Waheguru Naam and the Mool Mantar. The Charan Amrit ceremony was replaced by the Amrit Sanchar baptism, which the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, established at Vaisakhi in 1699.

Charan Kamal

The Guru's lotus feet.

Char Khani

The four sources of life in creation:

  • 1. Andaj, life born from the egg.
  • 2. Jeraj, life born from the womb, placenta, birth canal.
  • 3. Setaj, life born from (physical) secretions such as sweat, heat (microbes, bacteria.)
  • 4. Utbhuj, life born from the earth, vegetation, plants etc.


Verses in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib that consist of four lines.

Chaurasi Lakh Joon:

In Siri Guru Granth, this terminology has a metaphorical meaning. The term is used to describe the 8.4 million different forms of existence and their stages. The Siri Guru Granth Sahib explains the process of reincarnation that the soul goes through on its evolutionary path in order to attain the precious human birth.


Lyric composition consisting of "four to six lines".


A poetic composition that has four lines.

Charan Pahul

The Sikh baptism that took place from Satguru Nanak Dev to Guru Tegh Bahadur. The baptismal water was poured into a bowl, during which Gurbani was recited. The Sikh Gurus touched the water with their lotus feet. The aspirant drank this water and was accepted into the Guru's house as a Sikh.


A disciple (follower) of the Guru.


Pick up or retrieve (Gatka).


The clothes of the gurus. Also applies to the disguise of the Nishan Sahib flag in front of every Sikh Gurudwara.

Choti Dastar

is a small turban that is worn below the main dastar (turban). He is also known as "Keski".


An organized Sikh group, Sikh army, like the Nihang Dal etc.

Dal Khalsa

In 1733 Nawab Kapur Singh became leader of the Sikh army, accepted by the Panj Pyare and the Sarbat Khalsa. He merged the two groups of Tarna Dals and Budha Dals, known as the Dal Khalsa became known. The Dal Khalsa was divided into the famous Sikh regiment 'Misls'. In 1748 Nawab Kapur Singh hands over the leadership of the Dal Khalsa to Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.


is the place where Guru Gobind Singh stayed after the Battle of Muktsar. Damdama Sahib means a "stopping place" or a "place of breathing / resting."

Damdami Taksal

Sikh institution.Damdami Taksal is the highest seat of learning, also known as Guru ki Kanshi - the school of learning. The establishment of this teaching institute goes back to the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, who commissioned Baba Deep Singh to teach the Sikhs the correct pronunciation and meaning of Gurbani (Santhiya). Baba Deep Singh was the first jathedar (leader) of Damdami Taksal. The headquarters are in the village of Metha.

Daan Vir

A person who donates. Charity.

Darbar Sahib

refers to the main prayer hall within a Sikh Gurudwara as well as to the central and famous sanctuary of the Sikhs, the Sri Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, also known as "Darbar Sahib". Translated means Darbar Sahib, the divine court of the Lord. The abode of God. The Darbar Sahib on earth in Sri Amritsar is the sacred place where the Eternal Shabad Guru is placed in a prominent and central position on a throne during the day until evening prayer. A royal canopy is always installed over the throne of Holy Guru Granth Sahib.


Blessing. The Guru's blessed vision.

Dasam Granth

The Sri Dasam Granth is an anthology of Sikh hymns written by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. The Banis (prayers) Jaap Sahib, Tav Prasad Savaiye and the Chaupai Sahib (Benti Chaupai), which are recited by the baptized Sikhs during the five morning prayers, come from the Sri Dasam Granth. The Sri Dasam Granth includes the Chandi di Var, which the Nihang Singhs recite daily. The first nine lines of the Ardas are from the Sri Dasam Granth. The autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh, Bachitar Natak, the description of historical and spiritual leaders, the Khalsa Mahima, Akal Ustat, Gian Prabodh, the explanation and the names of weapons (Shastra Mala), the famous letter of victory Zafarnāma and many more should be emphasized. The Sri Dasam Granth contains both spiritual and religious things, such as the Banis of Guru Gobind Singh, as well as poetic-philosophical, historical and socio-cultural testimonies.


In Gurmukhi the headgear is called "Dastar" (turban) and is on the term: Dast-e-Yar attributed to: Always have the protective hand of God on your head. The Dastar stands for honor, nobility, sovereignty, courage, self-respect, spirituality and piety. The Dastar reminds of all Sikh Gurus, especially the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, who gave the Sikhs their uniqueness and dignity in their outward appearance. The dastar (turban) is worn around the Dasam Duarto protect the tenth gate, a spiritual energy center on the top of the head, as well as the long uncut hair. The Dastar belongs Not to the five Articles of Faith, however, it is an indispensable part of Sikh identity.
The 5 K's are: Kes - the uncut hair, this includes the entire body hair
Kangha - a wooden comb
Kara - a bangle made of iron
Kachera - a special shorts
Kirpan - a small dagger
Guru Gobind Singh gave the instruction that all baptized male Sikhs must wear a dastar. Sikhs baptized women optionally wear a dastar, but also cover their head with a dastar, scarf or chunni, like the baptized Sikh men.


Tithe. Every Sikh should donate a tenth of his income for the maintenance of the Sikh community and the Sikh Gurudwaras and support spiritual, social and educational projects.



Daya Vir

A person who is compassionate, gracious, merciful, full of kindness and sympathy.

Deg / Degh

Cooking pot from which the food of God comes for all living beings.

Deg Teg (Degh Tegh)

The double responsibility of the Sikh Panth to offer free food and to protect those in need and the oppressed.


is used as a temporary or permanent abode of a spiritual-religious Sikh group or a sant (saint).

Dhadi (Dhaddi)

Traditional ballad singers who use the instrument "Dhadh", a hand drum, to accompany their singing and presentations. In the Siri Guru Granth Sahib the term is mentioned in its meaning to sing about the Eternal Creator Lord. In the Sikh tradition, the dhadis reached their peak in popularity at the time of Guru Hargobind Sahib (1596-1638 *). The sixth Nanak hired prominent dhadis, such as Abdullah and Natha, to perform heroic ballads at Sikh festivities and gatherings (* dates - Damdami Taksal).

Dharam (Dharma)

The terminology of Dharam in the Sikh faith describes: righteousness, truthfulness, spiritual belief, justice, the moral-ethical, spiritual law. The social and ethical obligation in the personal as well as in the social area. Doctrine and spiritual practice that leads to the liberation of the soul.

Dharam Khand

describes one of the five realms (levels). In Sri Japji Sahib by Satguru Nanak Dev, all five realms, the 'Panj Khand' are listed. Dharam Khand is described as the kingdom for righteous deeds.


is God's servant who decides the fate of the individual for the next world. It does this based on what actions a person has taken in their life. In the Sri Japji Sahib by Satguru Nanak Dev, Dharamraj is referred to as the servant / judge of God. Chitra and Gupta are mentioned as the entities that record all of these actions in the subconscious. Every action, whether positive or negative, remains with the soul and is stored there. When the soul adopts a new body dress, the law of cause and effect (karma) begins to work. The karma takes over a regulating, balancing principle in the evolutionary process of the soul. The Sikh Gurus always emphasize to do as much good as possible and to lead a truthful, righteous life centered on God. This prevents the accumulation of new negative karma. Every thought, every act and every action has an effect on oneself and on the environment. These karmic effects are felt in visible and tangible results in life.


is the place inhabited by the highest truth and righteousness. Wherever Satguru Nanak Dev appeared, a dharamsal arose.

Dharam Yudh Morcha

Dharam Yudh originally means the struggle for righteousness. Dharamyudh Morcha has been a peaceful movement that campaigned for social, economic, political and religious equality. These peaceful protests have been practiced numerous times in the more than 500-year history of the Sikhs. In terms of war, it is war in defense of righteousness.

Dhur Ki Bani

The guru's divine word that comes directly from God.


is the gathering for common prayer, meditation and singing to praise God, as well as for spiritual discourses. In large historical places of worship where divans are held, this is called Divan Hall designated.


Victory. In the greeting Waheguru ji ka Khalsa - Waheguru ji ki Fateh, it is expressed that the victory belongs to Waheguru, God.


is a Muslim man of God.
Original meaning: someone who is without worldly attachment.


A great war cannon.


A weapon used in the Gatka. There are 1 to 2 iron balls on a metal cord.


Traitor, not loyal, sneaky, inconsiderate. A traitor and opponent of the Guru House.


The seat or throne of the Gurushood (see Gurgaddi).

Gaddi Rah

In Sikh theology this term is used to describe the Sikh path that the Sikh gurus taught and exemplified. Original meaning, a path marked by wagon wheels.


Also known as Madhgar. Wooden clubs used in pairs to spin around the upper part of the body using circular movements of the arms and shoulders for balance, coordination and strength.


The Sikh martial art. Practicing body and fighting techniques with various Shastras (weapons). Nihang Singhs are trained in the art of weapons as well as in the art of riding.

Garz - Gurj

Garz: Lots of small, sharp-edged fixed maces (fighting mace).
Gurj: Mace made of a spherical head made of steel on a round or octagonal steel shaft (as used by Guru Hargobind Sahih Ji).


Tether for the kirpan (dagger). The kirpan is one of the five symbols of faith worn by baptized Sikhs (Amritdharis). The Gatra is placed diagonally over the right shoulder so that it is worn on the left side of the body.

Gian, Giani (Gyan)

Knowledge, wisdom. A Giani is a scholar, a wise and knowing person.


original meaning book.


Reader and custodian of the Siri Guru Granth Sahib in the Gurudwaras. The Granthi is responsible for the daily routine in a Sikh Gurudwara. The Granthi performs the daily recitation of the Sikh prayers and leads the Sunday service in which the Saadh Sangat, the Holy Assembly, gathers. The Granthi explains among other things the Hukamnama, historical about the Sikh holidays and gives spiritual and historical discourses for the Sikh community. Ideally, the Granthi and volunteer Sikhs teach the children and young people in Gurmukhi, Shabad Kirtan and Sikh history. Often in the West the Granthi is equated with a priest. In the Sikh faith there is no official priesthood. Every baptized Sikh who can read Gurmukhi and recite the Sikh prayers has the opportunity to actively participate in the worship service. Baba Budha Ji was the first main Granthi in Sri Harmandir Sahib, he should be considered a role model for all Granthi.


the direct word of the formless Creator, which the Sikh Gurus and Bhagats received directly from God in their divinely anchored consciousness, manifested in the Holy Guru Granth Sahib.

Gurudwara (Gurdwara)

The gate entrance to Guru / God. The Gurudwara is the place of prayer of the Sikhs where the Eternal Living Guru, the Siri Guru Granth Sahib, the highest spiritual authority in the Sikh faith, is installed. In front of every Gurudwara is the famous Nishan flag of the Sikhs. Visitors of all origins and beliefs are always welcome in a Sikh Gurudwara to take part in the worship service or the Guru Ka Langar, the free vegetarian communal meal. When visiting Gurudwara, it should be noted that no intoxication is involved. Before entering the main hall, the Darbar Sahib, the visitor has to take off his shoes at the entrance. Wash hands (optionally feet). During the visit, the head must be covered with a cloth or dastar at all times. Gurudwaras in the west are formed by boards (committees) and run as an association. According to Sri Akaal Takht Sahib, the highest temporal seat of Sikh authority, the committee should be made up 5 baptized Sikhs, Amritdharis consist. The Gurudwaras in the West are subject to their own communal administration. However, every Sikh Gurudwara has to adhere to the Sikh Rehat Maryada for the Gurudwaras and to the Gurmat teaching of the Sikh Gurus. Sri Akaal Takht Sahib, the highest seat of the temporal Sikh authority, can intervene in the event of offenses, close the Gurudwara and excommunicate persons.

Gurgaddi (Gurgadi)

Throne of the Gurushood. Each of the ten Sikh Gurus held the Guru's throne. Gurushood was transferred from Sikh Guru to Sikh Guru. In 1708 Guru Gobind Singh transfers the Gurushood to the Siri Guru Granth Sahib in Nanded (Maharashtra). Since then, the Eternal Shabad Guru has been the highest spiritual and religious leader in the Sikh faith.

Gur Mantar (Gurmantra)

Satguru Nanak Dev received the Gur Mantar "Waheguru" in Sach Khand, the level of highest truthfulness, the Eternal Kingdom of God. Akaal Purakh Waheguru blessed Satguru Nanak Dev with Waheguru Naam. The Gur Mantar is "Waheguru". Waheguru is also described as the One Name of God, the One Mantra of God in the Sikh scriptures and prayers. Satguru Nanak Dev blessed humanity with the Gur Mantar Waheguru - with NAAM. Wherever the Satguru appeared, He taught to always remember God, to connect with the Waheguru Naam. Meditating on the divine substance, on the reality of God, is one of the main bases in Sikh faith (Naam Japo / Naam Simran). In the original Amrit baptism from 1699, the baptized Sikhs are blessed by the Panj Pyare with the "Gur Mantar Waheguru". The baptized Sikhs meditate daily with the Gur Mantar Waheguru.


The knowledge, wisdom and teaching of the Guru. Gurmat describes the doctrine of Sikh doctrine, philosophy and the foundations of the Sikh faith. The Gurmat teaching is based on God's / Guru's word, the experiences and instructions of the Sikh Gurus. The Sikh Gurus reveal the eternal timeless truth of God, as well as the mechanisms and methods for unification with the cosmic All Soul. The Gurmat teaching forms the fundamental basis of the Sikh religion.

Gurmata (Gurmatta)

The guru's intention, determination, or will expressed in a formal decision made by a representative assembly of baptized Sikhs. Gurmata is the collective decision (Sarbat Khalsa) of the Khalsa Panth in the presence of the "Siri Guru Granth Sahib".
Gurmata is made up of Gur (u) = Guru Granth Sahib, the Eternal Living Guru of the Sikhs, and Mata = determination, resolution.
The convention of the Gurmata became particularly popular in the 18th century to determine the unity of the Khalsa Panth on various matters. The Sikhs gathered on Vaisakhi and on major Sikh holidays in front of the Sri Akaal Takht in Amritsar. At these gatherings the Sikh nation made all important decisions together in the presence of the "Siri Guru Granth Sahib" in the form of direct democracy. In 1805 Maharaja Ranjit Singh terminated the Sarbat Khalsa convention of making collective decisions. However, Gurmata was then reintroduced by the Sikh Panth. Gurmata can only occur through a properly constituted gathering of various organizations of the Sikh Panth known as Sarbat Khalsa.


originally means with the "face to the guru". Gurmukh (f / m) is a person who aligns his life according to the Gurmat teaching of the Sikh Gurus and only follows, serves and worships the One Eternal True Guru, God. The actions and activities of a Gurmukh are characterized by the Gurmat teaching of the Sikh Gurus. A Gurmukh's consciousness is always focused on Guru / God. To be truthful and righteous is a claim that the Gurmukh makes of himself. A Gurmukh inspires the environment to animate the positive values, to meditate on God's name, to connect with Gurbani and the Saadh Sangat. The most important thing for a Gurmukh in his life is Guru / God. Through the love, devotion and grace that Guru gives the Gurmukh, the Gurmukh always connects with Naam, the divine existence and reality. Trying and striving to transform, the Gurmukh lives in trust and love for Guru / God (see Sachiara).


is the alphabet and script developed by Satguru Nanak Dev. In the composition Raag Asa, Mehla 1 in Patti Likhi a Bani composition in Siri Guru Granth Sahib, all letters of the Gurmukhi alphabet are listed under Satguru Nanak Dev (SGGS, Ang 432- Ang 435), compiled by Guru Arjan Dev.
Guru Angad Dev, the second Sikh Guru, learned Gurmukhi and successfully taught the Gurmukhi alphabet to the Sikh population.


are important holidays in the Sikh faith, which refer to the appearance (birth) of the Sikh Gurus and / or the martyrdom.


The divine word of the Guru, the sacred hymns.
The Gurshabad is the Siri Guru Granth Sahib.


Sikh of the Guru. The terminology of the Gursikh includes both the female and male Sikh. A Gursikh lives according to the Gurmat teaching and only follows the one omnipotent, omnipresent God IK OANKAR. A Gursikh's consciousness is linked to Guru / God. The deeds and actions of a Gursikh should be in harmony with the teaching of the Sikh Gurus. Gursikhs never cut their hair and beards. You renounce all intoxications. A Gursikh just bows to the holy Siri Guru Granth Sahib, who represents the divine word and the eternal light of God's / Guru's knowledge, Jaggdi Jot. Gursikhs are baptized and keep Rehat Maryada, the code of conduct. You protect and preserve the Gurmat teaching.


Gutka Sahib is a smaller prayer book that contains the daily Sikh prayers, the Nitnem Banis.


Gu means darkness, ignorance, ignorance.
Ru means light. Guru is the spiritual enlightener who frees the soul from darkness, ignorance and ignorance and blesses the consciousness with the divine light of truth, knowledge and knowledge (self-knowledge). The terms Guru and God are used synonymously in the Sikh faith. The Sikh Gurus were one with Akaal Purakh Waheguru. The terminology of the guru has other connotations such as "spiritual teacher, guide and mentor". Guru Nanak Dev is referred to as Satguru, the manifest Sargun form of Akaal Purakh Waheguru, God, on earth. The Satguru is the expression of the highest truthfulness on earth.


the divine guru, the spiritual father, master and teacher.

Guru Ka Langar

is free communal eating, the Sikhs' free kitchen. It was institutionalized by Satguru Nanak Dev. The Guru Ka Langar is open and free to every visitor. The food in a Sikh Gurudwara is purely vegetarian. The largest free kitchen in the world is located in the Sri Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar. There, 50,000 to 100,000 visitors are supplied with food every day.
In the Persian tradition there was the "Langar-Khana", which gave the poor free food and shelter. The "Sufi Khanqas" also had a communal kitchen that was open to everyone. Satguru Nanak Dev made the langar a permanent free institution. From the time of the first Sikh Guru, the Guru Ka Langar has been an integral part of the Sikh religion. The Guru Ka Langar transcends the worldly differences on the surface and connects the souls with one another. It reminds us that we are all people who come from one source, from God. We should treat each other and behave in a respectful, helpful and peaceful manner.


A person's hands (Gatka).

Haath Chukna

Fight with your hands (Gatka).

Halla Karan

Attack, attack.


The name of God.

Harmandir Sahib

originally means the abode of God. The Sri Harmandir Sahib, the Golden Temple is located in Amritsar in the state of Punjab, in northwest India.


Bringing about defeat.


Go back, tie, give in.


The name for God.

Haumai (Homai)

Ego, self-awareness, self-centeredness, pride.

Hazare Shabad

The common name for 7 Shabads from the Siri Guru Granth Sahib and 10 Shabads from the Sri Dasam Granth.

Hazur (Hazooree)

Presence of the Guru.

Hazur Sahib (Hazoor)

Sri Hazur Sahib is one of the five highest takhts (seats) in the Sikh faith.


A Hukamnama refers to a sacred hymn in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib and is selected daily for the day in question. The Hukamnama, also known as Mukhwak, is an invitation and instruction to the Sikhs to follow and contemplate the word of God from the Eternal Shabad Guru for the day in question. The word Hukamnama is a combination of two words. Hukam means will, order, instruction and Nama means statement. The daily Hukamnama from the Sri Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar is read and heard daily by the Sikhs around the world. Every Gurudwara takes a Hukamnama from the Siri Guru Granth Sahib daily at Amrit Vela. This Hukamnama is written on a board for the Sikh community. The meaning of the Hukamnama is also explained below.

Hola Mahalla (Hola Mohalla)

Guru Gobind Singh established this festival in Sri Anandpur. It is a three-day festival that is endowed in the spring every year. During Hola Mahalla, Gatka, the Sikh martial arts, horsemanship, traditional music events and competitions will be demonstrated.

Ik Oankar

Ik means one and Oankar the creator who creates, sustains and dissolves. Ik Oankar = One God.


Man, humanity, virtuous person.

Ishnaan (Ishnan)

means taking a bath, washing, purifying on a physical level. The Gurbani, the Word of God, Waheguru Naam and the Sikh prayers are the Ishnaan to purify and transform the mind.


An outdoor procession led by Siri Guru Granth Sahib with five khalsa.


Wide dagger.

Janam Sakhi

A bibliographic report. Historical and metaphysical accounts of the life of Satguru Nanak Dev and the Sikh Gurus.


Jaikara was used as a war cry. It is the loud exclamation of victory. Bole Sonihal - Sat Siri Akaal is a Jaikara. This is used in Gurudwara and at all Sikh festivals and celebrations (see Bole Sonihal).


chant, recite God's name.

Japji Sahib

is the first prayer in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib by Satguru Nanak Dev. It is recited to gain knowledge about God and His creative mechanisms. The Sri Japji Sahib is one of the five morning prayers of a Sikh.

Jaap Sahib

is the second prayer of the five morning prayers. It was written by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, and comes from the Sri Dasam Granth, the writing of the tenth Sikh Guru.


Leader and leader of a takht (seat of authority) such as the Sri Akaal Takht. The Nihang Panths have their Jathedars (leaders), as well as the various Sikh Jathas and Sikh groups.


To be victorious with a single blow of the sword (Gatka).


Ji is used to show respect and reverence. Ji is also used as an affectionate salutation.



Jiwan Mukti (Jivan Mukti)

A liberator in life. The Sikh belief teaches that the individual can free himself from the Maya, the temporary realm of existence, the five thieves and from the wheel of reincarnation, through the grace of the true guru, God, during his lifetime.


impure (spirit).



Joti Jot

Joti Jot always reminds of the day on which the Sikh Gurus took off their body clothing on earth and entered Sach Khand, the kingdom of the highest truthfulness, the abode of God. The light of the guru merges with the eternal light of God - Joti Jot.

Kachera (Kacchera, Kachha)

Every baptized Sikh wears the five Kakār (5 K's), the five articles of faith of the Sikh faith. The kachera is an almost knee-length short (underpants) worn by baptized Sikh women and Sikh men. It symbolizes fidelity in marriage, control of lust (Kaam) and stands for self-respect. The kachera had a very practical use in earlier times, as it guaranteed freedom of movement on the field of war under traditional Sikh clothing, the bana.

Kakār (Kakaar)

are the five articles of faith of the Sikh religion. Every baptized Sikh wears the 5 Kakār.

  • Kes - The uncut hair, refers to all hair on the body.
  • Kangha - a wooden comb that is worn in the hair.
  • Kara - an iron bracelet worn on the wrist.
  • Kirpan - a small dagger that is carried diagonally over the shoulder in a gatra.
  • Kachera - a special shorts.

Kal (Kaal)

The creator of the cosmos. The timeless one. The death.


The archer, bow.


Hip band around the bana.

Kar Seva (Kar Sewa)

Kar = work, Seva = selfless service.
The term Kar Seva (Kar Sewa) is used for the construction of historical Sikh shrines and Gurudwaras. The renovation of it is carried out by volunteers (sevadars) and not by the paid workers. The terminology Kar Seva is also used to purify Saint Amrit Sarovar before Sri Harmandir Sahib every 50 years.
In 1762 the Afghan King Abdali Ahmad Shah destroyed the Sri Harmandir Sahib and had the holy Sarovar (Amrit Lake) filled with rubbish and animal carcasses. The Sarovar then had to be cleaned again. In 1767 the Udasi saints, Nirvan Pritam Das and Mahant Santokh built a 35 mile long water canal to fill the saint Amrit Sarovar of Sri Harmandir Sahib with the waters of the Ravi River. In 1923, the first Kar Seva in the 20th century is held to purify the Holy Amrit Lake. The next Kar Seva took place in 1973. Due to the damage to the Sacred Sarovar during Operation Blue Star 1984, Kar Seva was conducted in 1985 for the Sarovar and the damaged Sri Darbar Complex. In 2004, the Sri Harmandir Sahib began the first Kar Seva of the 21st century for the purpose of installing high-tech water treatment systems.


Princess. All female Sikhs baptized are given the surname Kaur. The daughter, a "real Kaur" of Mata Sahib Kaur Devan and Guru Gobind Singh, becomes one at the moment of Amrit baptism (Khande di Pahul). With the Amrit Sanchar baptism, the baptized Sikhs all belong to the Khalsa Panth. Many female Sikhs bear the name Kaur from birth, but have not yet performed the Amrit baptism. The time when a Sikh is baptized is decided by himself or he follows the call of the guru.

Karah Parshad

Blessed sweet that is distributed in Gurudwara, when visiting, in daily worship, at all Sikh ceremonies and readings. Karah Parshad is made from flour, water, sugar and ghee (purified butter fat). Some gurudwaras add spices like cardamom. During the preparation, the "Sri Japji Sahib by Satguru Nanak Dev" should be recited.


Lecture on the content and meaning of the Sikh scriptures and Sikh history. Interpretation and explanations of the sacred hymns from the Siri Guru Granth Sahib or other Sikh scriptures such as the Sri Dasam Granth, Vārān from Bhai Gurdas, Bhai Nand Lal scriptures, Sri Gur Pratap Suraj Granth, Sri Sarbloh Granth etc.

Kathakaar (Kathavachik)

is the person who does the spiritual talk that Katha gives in Gurudwara.

Kes (Kesh)

Hair. The uncut hair forms one of the five symbols of faith in the Sikh religion. Sikhs do not cut their hair as an expression of acceptance and respect for God's will, His omnipotence and perfection in His creation. Satguru Nanak Dev and the Sikh Gurus have given their Sikhs the instruction (Hukam) to keep their hair and not to cut it. Any Sikh who keeps his hair is called a 'Kesdhari'.


is a small form of the dastar that is worn between the main dastar and the hair.

Khalsa - Khalsa Panth

Khalsa means pure and sovereign. The terminology Khalsa was already mentioned by 'Kabir' in his sacred hymns in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib. From Satguru Nanak Dev to Guru Tegh Bahadur, the Sikhs were blessed to be Sikhs with 'Charan Amrit'. During the lifetime of Guru Hargobind Sahib, the sixth Sikh Guru, the Masands had begun to baptize their own followers separately. They were called 'Sahalangi Sikhs', the employees of the Masands. The Masands split off from the Guru House. Those baptized by the Sikh Guru were called 'Khalsa Sikhs' and 'Gursikhs' (Sikhs of the Guru). When Guru Gobind Singh manifested the Khalsa Panth on earth at the will of Akaal Purakh Waheguru (God) at Vaisakhi in 1699, he introduced the system of Panj Pyare, the five beloved ones who were to perform the baptismal ceremony from then on. Guru Gobind Singh transfers the authority of the Guru to the 'Guru Khalsa Panth'. In 1708, the spiritual, religious guru is transferred to the Eternal Shabad Guru, the Siri Guru Granth Sahib. Bhai Gurdas II, a contemporary of Guru Gobind Singh, describes this as Gur Sangat kini Khalsa, the whole sangat of the Guru became Khalsa.'Baptized Sikhs are called' Amritdharis', they belong to the Khalsa Panth. The Khalsa is the brotherhood of the pure and sovereign who preserve and protect the basic value system in the Sikh faith.

Khalsa Dal

or Dal Khalsa is the army of initiated Sikhs who fought in the wars of defense to maintain the Sikh faith during the 18th century.


original meaning: the land of the pure or the land where Khalsa brings sovereignty. Some Sikh groups and parties are striving for an independent state. During the independence negotiations in 1946, when the partition of India was being discussed, it was Sardar Baldev Singh who used the word "Khalistan" to describe the area where the majority of Sikhs can live. Sardar Baldev Singh decided to compromise and then became the first Defense Minister of India. The terminology Khalistan then revived in the late 1970s when the Akali agitation for more autonomy began. After 1984 the claim to an independent state or to strive for more autonomy was not completely given up and is still used today by the Sikh Sangat and political parties like the Shiromani Akali Dal man pursued peacefully.

About Youth Akali Dal Amritsar
About Shiromani Akali Dal - Simranjit Singh Mann Facebook
About the political party Shiromani Akali Dal Amritsar

Khanjar Dagger

Khanjar dagger, a double-edged, curved blade with a jade or stone handle in the shape of a parrot's head.

Khanda sword & Khanda sign

Double-sided sword. The double-sided sword (Khanda) is assigned a particularly high value in the Sikh faith. It is used, among other things, in the Sikh baptism ceremony Amrit Sanchar. The Khanda sign includes a collection of four weapons. At the center is the double-edged sword, which represents the creative power of God, the entire universe and the fate of the universe. The Khanda stands for divine knowledge, its blades separate truth from falsehood. The meaning of the two curved swords: the first sword stands for the political / secular leadership (Miri) and the second sword symbolizes the spiritual power and leadership (Piri). Inside the two swords around the khanda is a circle called the chakkar. There must be a balance between both Miri and Piri, this is symbolized by the inner circle. It encompasses the entire divine manifestation and represents the beginning and endlessness as well as the perfection of God and His timelessness.

Khanda Batta Amrit

Amrit baptismal water that is blessed by Gurbani and the double-sided sword, the Khanda. This ambrosial nectar is drunk from an iron bowl (Sarbloh Batta) at the initiation into the Khalsa Panth.

Khande di Pahul

Amrit baptized into the Khalsa Panth (see Amrit Sanchar).


Merciful, grace, blessing.


a small dagger that is carried by all baptized Sikhs in a gatra (tether). After the Gurmat Rehat Maryada, the kirpan should be placed diagonally in a gatra over the right shoulder. In some cases the kirpan is worn on a string, in some cases Nihang Singhs. The kirpan symbolizes the duty of a Sikh to stand up for the needy, the weak and the oppressed. The kirpan is a symbol of patience, grace, courage, bravery and mercy. The kirpan is synonymous with the destruction of ignorance, ignorance, injustice and oppression. Baptized Sikhs wear a short form of the kirpan (approx. 15-22 cm) on their body at all times. Use is only permitted for the protection of others and, in an emergency, for your own self-defense. But never to attack. If possible, the kirpan should not be separated from the body. (Exceptions for security checks, air travel, etc.).

Kirtan (Shabad Kirtan)

singing and making music of the holy hymns, which are divided into 31 raags, 31 mishrat raags in 17 taala. The Shabad Kirtan is performed accompanied by instruments. Practicing Shabad Kirtan, or Raag Kirtan, is one of the main bases in the Sikh faith (more information under Shabad Kirtan).

Kirtan Sohila

is the night prayer. It is recited just before going to bed. The Kirtan Sohila is part of the daily Sikh prayers, the Nitnem Banis. It is also performed at a Sikh farewell / death ceremony. (More information under Sikh prayers)


Anger, anger. Belongs to the five thieves, the Panj Chor.

Kurahat (Kurehat)

The Khalsa, the baptized Sikhs, are not allowed to commit any of the four crimes Kurahat (Kurehat):

  • Hajamat - Cutting all body hair, scalp hair and beard. Do not make any changes to the body.
  • Halaal - No consumption of meat, eggs and fish according to the Gurmat Rehat Maryada.
  • Haram - Do not commit adultery.
  • Hookah - No consumption of tobacco, alcohol, drugs or other intoxications.


Flexible, resilient.


One hundred thousand, 100,000.


the free communal meal in a Gurudwara (see Guru ka Langar).


Clash, fight, a battle.

Lavan (Lawan)

A 4 stanza composition by Guru Ram Das found on Ang 773 in the Holy Guru Granth Sahib. This composition forms the basis for the traditional Sikh marriage.


Greed. Belongs to the five thieves, Panj Chor.

Mala (Maala)

is a prayer chain made of either wood or some other material such as sarbloh (iron) or semi-precious stone. The balls / pearls are tied on a string. The prayer chain is used, for example, to count the number of Gur Mantar Waheguru. The number of balls on a prayer chain varies from belief to belief. The use of a Maala is an individual decision.


Sikh holiday to commemorate the Chali Mukti, the 40 liberated from the Battle of Muktsar.


were the ones who were in control of the Sikh Gurudwaras prior to the Gurudwara Act of 1925. The Mahants were supported by the British and made legal owners of the Sikh Gurudwaras. Their corrupt and selfish management led to the rebellion of the Sikh Sangat. Through peaceful agitation, the Sikhs managed to regain control of the Sikh Gurudwaras. With the introduction of the Gurudwara Act of 1925, the Gurudwaras were subordinated to the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) for administration in order to replace the management of the Mahants.


a great developed (realized) soul. A holy person.


Great King.


An open field, field in the country.


Mind, mind.

Mani Singh (Bhai)

Bhai Mani Singh was born at the time of Guru Har Rai. He belonged to a family of trained Rajput warriors. They were known for their numerous sacrifices during Jahangir's reign. Bhai Mani Singh's grandfather died in the first defense war that Guru Hargobind Sahib, the sixth Sikh Guru, successfully waged against the Mughals. Of Bhai Mani Singh's ten brothers, nine gave their lives to defend and uphold the Sikh faith. Bhai Dayala, the eldest brother of Bhai Mani Singh, was a faithful Gursikh of the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. Bhai Dayala succumbed to martyrdom in the presence of Guru Tegh Bahadur. Bhai Dayala Ji was placed in a boiling hot pot filled with water with a fire under it. He was tortured to death by Mughals. All of his sons fought successfully for Guru Gobind Singh. Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed rose to the highest position in Guru Gobind Singh's divan. He was sent to Sri Harmandir Sahib together with 25 other Singhs to take control of the sanctuary. The Minas (Meenas) were opponents of the Sikh Gurus and the Guru House. They were known for their corruption and dishonesty. Bhai Mani Singh became the main granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib. Through his diplomatic and excellent leadership he was able to protect the Sikh Sangat and the Sri Harmandir Sahib. By order of Guru Gobind Singh, Bhai Mani Singh established the theological Samaj Taksal in Amritsar known as Taksal Bhai Mani Singh. From this taksal and the taksal of Baba Deep Singh Damdami the best Gianis (Sikh scholars) emerge in the traditional Gurmat teaching. Guru Gobind Singh dictated the entire Guru Granth Sahib to Bhai Mani Singh by heart in Damdama. Just as Bhai Gurdas was the writer of Guru Arjan Dev, Bhai Mani Singh was given the honorable assignment of being the writer of Guru Gobind Singh. Bhai Mani Singh was among other things the author of the Janam Sakhi - Gian Ratnavali and from Sikhan di Bhagatmala, based on the 11th var from Bhai Gurdas.


Sri Guru Amar Das established 22 manjis. These were 22 spiritual headquarters of the Sikh faith. Guru Amar Das appointed 22 noble men and women (Sangatia or Masands) to administer the Manjis. Here the Sikh faith was taught and disseminated as well as all matters of the Sikh Sangat, income, free public meals, etc. were regulated.
The Masand system was later disbanded by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, as the leadership became corrupt and separated from the Guru House (see Masands).

Manji Sahib:

is the place where the Siri Guru Granth Sahib is placed. It symbolizes royal sovereignty.


The word Manmat is made up of Man, the "spirit" and Mat, "understanding of". A Manmat-oriented person (Manmukh) follows and lives out of self-awareness, is self-centered and puts his own needs and desires before all others. Manmat rejects the divine knowledge, the word and the transcendental eternally valid message of God / gurus. Limited I-consciousness is a Mayan creation that was created by God himself. The opposite of Manmat is "Gurmat" (see Gurmat).

The intellect of the spirit is untrue, spurious, counterfeit, only God the Lord is true. (SGGS, Ang 222)


originally means the face to the ego, turned to the spirit. A Manmukh is guided by his mind, by his ego (Ahankar / Haumai) and follows the instructions, instincts and desires of the mind. A manmukh rejects the advice, wisdom and omnipotence of God / gurus. For him the material world is the only true existence. A Manmukh ignores the eternal Creator and His eternal laws of nature. A Manmukh tries to foster duality and aversion in people's consciousness rather than cultivating harmony, respect and brotherhood. The Manmukh is attached to the relative, transitory realm of life, the Maya. He's the opposite of a Gurmukh ..


Tradition, religious, spiritual practice. Code of conduct on a socio-ethical and spiritual level.